Validation of the self-completed Cambridge-Hopkins questionnaire (CH-RLSq) for ascertainment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a population survey
ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies of restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been limited by lack of a well validated patient-completed diagnostic questionnaire that has a high enough specificity to provide a reasonable positive predictive value. Most of the currently used patient completed diagnostic questionnaires have neither been validated nor included items facilitating the differential diagnosis of RLS from conditions producing similar symptoms. The Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CH-RLSq) was developed with several iterations to include items covering the basic diagnostic features of RLS and to provide some basic differential diagnosis. This validation study sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the RLS diagnosis based on this questionnaire.
The CH-RLSq was completed by 2005 blood donors who were asked to consent to being contacted for a telephone diagnostic interview. A scoring criterion was established for ascertainment of RLS based on the clinical definition of the disorder and the exclusion of "mimic" conditions. A weighted sample (N=185) of all completed questionnaires was selected for expert clinical diagnosis of RLS using the validated Hopkins Telephone Diagnostic Interview (HDTI). The telephone interviewers were blinded to all questionnaire responses.
A telephone diagnosis was obtained on 183 of the sample's 185 questionnaires. The questionnaire's normalized sensitivity and specificity were 87.2% and 94.4%, respectively, for RLS compared to not RLS. The positive predictive values in this sample were 85.5%.
The Cambridge-Hopkins RLS questionnaire provides a reasonable level of sensitivity and specificity for ascertainment of RLS in population-based studies.
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ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a challenging condition, but the management of patients with FM is becoming facilitated by new medications that act in what are thought to be some of most important pathophysiological features in this syndrome. However, it is of pivotal importance that an interdisciplinary approach is used to improve pain, fatigue, sleep and other domains to improve quality of life. Here, we present elements of management that the solo practitioner can tackle, focussing in the formally approved drugs for FM and other drugs commonly used in this condition. Further, the elements of an ideal multidisciplinary team are presented, and on how to incorporate their recommendations for the treatment of FM.Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology 06/2010; 24(3):341-52. DOI:10.1016/j.berh.2009.12.010 · 3.06 Impact Factor
Article: RLS and blood donation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The link between brain iron deficiency and RLS is now well established. In a related observation, several conditions that can deplete iron stores have been linked to increased probability of RLS. Blood donation has been linked to iron deficiency. It has thus been hypothesized that donating blood may be a risk factor for developing RLS. Two thousand and five UK blood donors, ranging from first-time donors to some who had donated more than 70 times, completed the validated Cambridge-Hopkins RLS questionnaire (CH-RLSq) following their donation session. The questionnaire included a set of questions designed to diagnose RLS. The donors' histories of blood donations were determined both from self-report and from the National Blood Service database. A number of statistical models were constructed to determine whether the probability of RLS diagnosis was related to the history of blood donations. Controlling for age and sex, no evidence was found to suggest that a greater number or frequency of blood donations increased the risk of RLS. Even amongst sub-groups especially vulnerable to iron depletion through blood donation, such as vegetarians or low weight individuals, no evidence for an increased risk of RLS could be found. We found no evidence that the frequency or number of blood donations up to the UK maximum of three times a year would increase the risk of RLS.Sleep Medicine 02/2009; 10(8):844-9. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2008.09.013 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular pain disorder (TMD) is a common pain condition in the face. People with TMD report multiple pain comorbidities. The presence of fibromyalgia and migraine in people with TMD is associated with an increase in TMD pain intensity and duration. However, data on the relationship between increasing number of pain comorbidities and TMD pain are rare. The aims of this study were: firstly to evaluate the extent to which increasing number of comorbidities is associated with increasing TMD pain intensity and duration; and secondly to evaluate the extent to which the presence of specific comorbidities is associated with increasing TMD pain intensity and duration. The sample included 180 people seeking TMD treatment at Boston and Montreal clinics. TMD was diagnosed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. A Numerical Pain Rating Scale assessed TMD pain intensity and participants provided their TMD pain duration in a study questionnaire. The comorbidities of migraine, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis and restless leg syndrome were diagnosed by 5 validated diagnostic questionnaires. The associations were analyzed by linear regression, controlling for confounders. There was a positive association between the number of comorbidities present and TMD pain intensity (p < 0.01) and between the number of comorbidities present and TMD pain duration (p < 0.01). Also, the presence of migraine was positively associated with TMD pain intensity (p < 0.01) and the presence of chronic fatigue syndrome was positively associated with TMD pain intensity (p < 0.05) and with TMD pain duration (p < 0.01). When TMD patients were separated into groups, these associations did not change for the myofascial pain group, whereas in the non-myofascial pain group, the relationship between number of comorbidities and TMD pain duration was the only one still present. This study shows that the number of comorbidities is positively associated with TMD pain duration and intensity. The presence of specific conditions, such as migraine and chronic fatigue syndrome, is associated with an increase in TMD intensity and duration.The Journal of Headache and Pain 12/2015; 16(1):528. DOI:10.1186/s10194-015-0528-2 · 3.28 Impact Factor