Constitutive Somatostatin Receptor Activity Determines Tonic Pituitary Cell Response

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.31). 03/2009; 94(2):703. DOI: 10.1210/me.2008-0361
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Somatostatin (SRIF) binds G protein-coupled SRIF receptor subtypes (SST1, -2, -3, -4, and -5) to regulate cell secretion and proliferation. Hypothalamic SRIF inhibits pituitary growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and ACTH secretion. We tested SRIF-independent constitutive SST activity in AtT20 mouse pituitary corticotroph cells in which ACTH secretion is highly sensitive to SRIF action. Stable transfectants expressing SST2 or SST5 were sensitized to selective agonist action, and constitutive SST receptor activity was demonstrated by forskolin and pertussis toxin cAMP cell responses. Persistent constitutive SST activity decreased cell ACTH responses to CRH through decreased expression of CRH receptor subtype 1. Decreased dopamine receptor type 1 expression was associated with attenuated dopamine agonist action, whereas responses to isoproterenol were enhanced through increased beta 2-adrenoreceptor expression. Thus, integrated pituitary cell ACTH regulation is determined both by phasic SRIF action, as well as by tonic constitutive SST activity, independently of SRIF. (Molecular Endocrinology 23: 337-348, 2009)

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