Patient preference as a moderator of outcome for chronic forms of major depressive disorder treated with nefazodone, cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, or their combination.
ABSTRACT Little is known about moderators of response to psychotherapy, medication, and combined treatment for chronic forms of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that patient preference at baseline would interact with treatment group to differentially affect treatment outcome.
We report outcomes for 429 patients who participated in a randomized multicenter trial of nefazodone, Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), or combination therapy for chronic forms of MDD (DSM-IV criteria) and who indicated their preference for type of treatment at study entry. The primary outcome measures were total scores on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-24) and categorical definitions of remission or partial response. The patients were recruited between June 1996 and December 1997.
There was an interactive effect of preference and treatment group on outcome. The treatment effect varied as a function of preference, and was particularly apparent for patients who initially expressed preference for one of the monotherapies. Patients who preferred medication had a higher remission rate (45.5%) and lower mean HAM-D-24 score (11.6) at study exit if they received medication than if they received psychotherapy (remission rate, 22.2%; mean HAM-D-24 score, 21.0). Patients who preferred psychotherapy had a higher remission rate (50.0%) and lower mean HAM-D-24 score (12.1) if they received psychotherapy than if they received medication (remission rate 7.7%, mean HAM-D-24 score 18.3). Nevertheless, treatment preference was not associated with risk of dropout from the study.
These results suggest that patient preference is a potent moderator of treatment response for patients with chronic forms of MDD; however, relatively low proportions of the patient sample preferred one of the monotherapies, participants were not blinded to treatment assignment, and there was no placebo group.
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ABSTRACT: Beliefs about how much people can change their attributes - implicit theories - influence affective and cognitive responses to performance subsequent motivation. Those who believe their attributes are fixed view setbacks as threatening and avoid challenging situations. In contrast, those who believe these attributes are malleable embrace challenges as opportunities to grow. Although implicit theories would seem to have important mental health implications, the research linking them with clinical applications is limited. To address this gap, we assessed how implicit theories of anxiety, emotion, intelligence, and personality related to various symptoms of anxiety and depression, emotion-regulation strategies, and hypothetical treatment choices (e.g., medication versus therapy) in two undergraduate samples. Across both samples, individuals who believed their attributes could change reported fewer mental healths symptoms, greater use of cognitive reappraisal, and were more likely to choose individual therapy over medication. These findings suggest implicit theories may play an important role in the nature and treatment of mental health problems.Cognitive Therapy and Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10608-014-9652-6 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Neurofunctional deficits in chronic depression (CD) have been understudied. Specifically there is no known published study of the effects of a specialized psychotherapy for CD (CBASP) on neurofunctional deficits. Methods Ten patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of CD received a 12 week specialised psychotherapy (CBASP). Controls were healthy matched volunteers. All subjects participated in a prospective study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline and after 12 weeks. During the fMRI scans, subjects performed an implicit and explicit emotional processing task while watching dynamic displays of neutral, positive (happy) and negative (fearful and sad) facial expressions. Effects of treatment were analyzed in a repeated measures design. The analysis was restricted to two anatomically defined regions of interest (ROI): the amygdala and the cingulum. Results 60% of patients responded to treatment. Patients with CD reported increased arousal to negative emotional expressions. They also showed an increase in left amygdala reactivity during implicit processing of emotional expressions following psychotherapy. We found no significant effect for the cingulum. Limitations The main limitation of our study is the small sample size. Due to the lack of a control group it is also unclear whether the demonstrated effect is specific to the psychotherapy used in this study. Conclusions For the first time our study demonstrates an effect of CBASP on neural processing of facial emotions in CD. It therefore adds to the growing evidence supporting this treatment.Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2014; 166:93–97. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.055 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Given high rates of depression and low rates of treatment utilization among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we examined how depression symptoms impact PTSD treatment beliefs and preference (prolonged exposure (PE), sertraline, or PE plus sertraline). We also examined whether PTSD treatment rationales tailored to individuals with symptoms of depression impact PTSD treatment preference/beliefs. Undergraduates (N = 439) were given an "imagine self" scenario where they either had symptoms of PTSD or PTSD and depression in the future. Trauma-exposed community members (N = 203) reported their own PTSD and depression symptoms. All participants watched standardized treatment rationales for PE and sertraline that were systematically manipulated to include information on depression or not. Across both samples, depression symptoms were associated with significantly increased odds of selecting combination treatment relative to PE alone. For those in the community sample who received the depression-relevant treatment rationale, higher depression symptoms were associated with significantly greater PE credibility and more positive reactions toward PE. Taken together, depression may be associated with a greater preference for combination treatment. However, treatment providers may be able to improve treatment beliefs about PE by offering a treatment rationale that explains that PE tends to help improve symptoms of PTSD and depression.Behaviour Research and Therapy 10/2014; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2014.07.013 · 3.85 Impact Factor