Patterns of atypical antipsychotic subtherapeutic dosing among Oregon Medicaid patients.

Oregon State University, Portland, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 12/2008; 69(10):1540-7. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.v69n1003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine a cohort of Medicaid patients with new prescriptions for atypical antipsychotic medication to determine the prevalence of subtherapeutic atypical antipsychotic medication use and to identify patient and prescribing provider characteristics associated with occurrence of subtherapeutic use.
This observational cohort study examined Medicaid administrative claims data for patients aged 20 to 64 years with a new prescription for an atypical antipsychotic medication (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone) between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2004. Patient diagnostic information was identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes on submitted medical claims. Patient characteristics, prescribing provider characteristics, length of therapy, and dosing were examined. A logistic regression assessed the probability of subtherapeutic dosing.
Among 830 individuals in our sample who began treatment with an atypical antipsychotic, only 15% had a documented diagnosis of schizophrenia, subtherapeutic dosing was common (up to 86% of patients taking quetiapine), and 40% continued less than 30 days with the index prescription. A logistic model indicated that a general practitioner as prescribing provider, length of therapy equal to or less than 30 days, and prescription of quetiapine were significantly associated with a subtherapeutic dose (p < .001, p = .028, and p < .001, respectively).
These results suggest that there is extensive use of expensive atypical antipsychotic medications for off-label purposes such as sedation or for other practice patterns that should be explored further. Approaches that minimize off-label atypical antipsychotic use could be of considerable value to Medicaid programs. In addition, these findings support the need for the introduction or increased use of utilization monitoring and the implementation of medication practice guidelines as appropriate decision support for prescribing providers.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medicaid programs are concerned about inappropriate, potentially hazardous, and costly off-label use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Several states are exploring policies aimed at managing low-dose quetiapine, commonly prescribed for off-label conditions. This study aimed to characterize longitudinal trends and patient characteristics associated with low-dose quetiapine in two state Medicaid programs. We further aimed to quantify changes in the use of quetiapine associated with a legal settlement that curtailed off-label promotion of this product. Using administrative data from two state Medicaid programs, Oregon and Colorado, we identified SGA initiators and determined patient level factors associated with receipt of low-dose SGAs. We evaluated changes in low-dose quetiapine initiation during and after a period in which quetiapine was being promoted illegally for off-label purposes. We identified 14 763 new SGA starts during the study period. Low-dose (versus therapeutic dose) SGA use was common in both states, representing 53% to 56% of initiators. Quetiapine was the most commonly used SGA in both states and both dose ranges. Diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder, and use of newer sedative hypnotics were associated with lower likelihood of initiating low-dose quetiapine. Initiation of low-dose quetiapine as a proportion of all SGA initiation and of all quetiapine initiation significantly declined in Oregon following suspension of off-label promotional activities. Low-dose SGA and specifically low-dose quetiapine use remains common. Medicaid programs must set policies carefully to maximize the net safety of prescription use while optimizing disease management considering the potential for substitution effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 01/2014; 23(1). DOI:10.1002/pds.3538 · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical literature suggests a link between substance abuse and sleep disturbances. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has shown efficacy in treating sleep disturbances, with clinical studies showing promise for quetiapine as a treatment for cocaine abuse. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of quetiapine on cocaine self-administration and behavioral indices of sleep in monkeys. Seven adult male rhesus monkeys, fitted with ActicalA (R) activity monitors, were trained to respond under a choice paradigm of food (1.0-g pellets) and cocaine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg per injection) presentation. First, monkeys received acute pretreatment (45 min) with quetiapine (25-75 mg, p.o.) prior to choice sessions; three cocaine doses were studied in combination with quetiapine. Next, the effect of chronic (14-16 days) quetiapine treatment (25-250 mg, p.o., BID) was examined in combination with the lowest preferred cocaine dose (a parts per thousand yen80 % cocaine choice). Behavioral indices of sleep, based on activity measures obtained during lights-out, were recorded throughout the study. Acute quetiapine decreased cocaine choice in four of the seven monkeys. Chronic quetiapine treatment resulted in initial decreases in cocaine choice, but tolerance developed to these effects. Acute doses of quetiapine did not improve sleep efficiency the following night nor did chronic quetiapine. The first night after discontinuing quetiapine treatment resulted in significant decreases in sleep efficiency and increases in nighttime activity. These findings do not offer support for the use of quetiapine as a monotherapy for treatment of cocaine abuse nor as an adjunct therapy to treat sleep disturbances associated with stimulant abuse.
    Psychopharmacology 07/2014; 232(2). DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3672-5 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review explores basic sleep physiology, the mechanism of action for each class of hypnotic agents, their clinical application based on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors, and potential pharmacologic sleep-inducing mechanisms of future hypnotics. The paper challenges the reader to understand the neuroscientific basis of insomnia and use this knowledge to guide prescription of hypnotic agents. Currently indicated hypnotic agents are discussed with regard to their mechanism of drug action and clinical application. A broader discussion is developed throughout this paper regarding other non-indicated agents that may improve sleep and describing newer pharmacological treatments that may become available in the future for use in sleep disorders and their comorbid conditions.
    Drugs in Context 10/2013; 2013:212257. DOI:10.7573/dic.212257

Full-text (2 Sources)

1 Download
Available from
Mar 28, 2015