Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic study of 106 cases with emphasis on its morphologic subtypes (histologic growth pattern).
ABSTRACT Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (EPTC) can have a histologic growth pattern similar to the one seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or akin to the follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC). This study aims to assess the behavior of EPTC according to its growth pattern.
All cases of thyroid carcinomas treated at our institution between 1980 and 2000 were reviewed and reclassified according to current histopathologic criteria.
After review by two pathologists, 106 cases were included. Forty-three (41%) of the cases were identified as encapsulated classical PTC (E-CPTC) and 63 (59%) as encapsulated FVPTC (E-FVPTC). E-FVPTC had a higher rate of vascular invasion (16/63; 25%) than E-CPTC (2/43; 5%) (p = 0.007). In contrast, E-CPTC had a higher frequency of capsular invasion (28/43; 65%) than E-FVPTC (24/63, 38%) (p = 0.01). The lymph node metastatic rate was significantly higher in E-CPTC (11/43, 26%) compared to E-FVPTC (2/63, 3%) (p = 0.0014). All 34 noninvasive E-FVPTC lacked evidence of nodal metastases while 4 of 15 (27%) noninvasive E-CPTC presented with nodal disease (p = 0.006). Distant metastasis occurred only in four cases of E-FVPTC at presentation. These four FVPTC had extensive capsular and/or vascular invasion and no nodal disease. None of noninvasive EPTC recurred, including 30 patients treated by lobectomy without radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy (median follow-up: 8.9 years).
E-CPTC resembles classical PTC in its propensity to metastasize to lymph nodes and its vascular/capsular invasive pattern while E-FVPTC behaves more like follicular carcinoma/adenoma group of tumors. Meticulous search for capsular and vascular invasion can reliably predict the metastatic potential of E-FVPTC but not of E-CPTC. The latter can therefore be treated like unencapsulated classical PTC. Noninvasive E-FVPTC could be managed like minimally invasive follicular carcinoma by lobectomy without RAI therapy. Invasive E-FVPTC seem quite indolent if no distant metastases are found at presentation.
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ABSTRACT: It has been speculated that the Bethesda Classification System for thyroid fine-needle aspirate (FNA) may be used to predict aggressive features among histologically proven malignancies. We sought to evaluate whether malignancies that were characterized as Bethesda category V or VI have more aggressive features than malignancies that were category III or IV. A prospectively maintained database was reviewed to identify thyroid malignancies treated at a single center from 2004 to 2009. Only cancers that could be definitively matched to a preoperative FNA were included. Associations between Bethesda category, patient demographics, histopathologic findings, and outcomes were examined. A total of 360 cancers were analyzed: 73 (20 %) were Bethesda category III or IV and 287 (80 %) were category V or VI. The majority of Bethesda III and IV cancers were follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC), whereas the majority of Bethesda V and VI cancers were classic PTC (52 and 67 %, respectively, p < 0.01). Extrathyroidal extension (30 vs. 16 %, p = 0.02), lymph node metastases (50 vs. 31 %, p = 0.05), and multifocality (51 vs. 37 %, p = 0.03) were more common among Bethesda V and VI nodules. However, when Bethesda III or IV classic PTC and fvPTC were compared to Bethesda V or VI cancers of the same histologic subtype, there were no differences in any features. Recurrence and overall survival were the same in all groups. Bethesda category may help to predict the most likely histologic subtype of thyroid cancer, but it does not have any prognostic significance once the histologic diagnosis is known.Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the development and maturation of new technologies, there has been a steady incorporation of powerful new tools into the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. An increasing number of reports on oncogene testing and molecular screening in fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples have been published. However, there remains a paucity of data and consensus on combining both conventional and molecular technologies to determine the diagnosis and/or prognosis of disease. All patients with differentiated thyroid cancer stand to benefit from the identification and incorporation of reliable molecular markers into clinical practice. Identification of reliable markers would allow for stratification of treatment, affording the medical and surgical teams an ability to individually tailor evaluation and treatment, applying aggressive therapy and monitoring only when clinically warranted. For the majority of patients with thyroid cancer, the incorporation of a validated, multifaceted molecular profiling system may not improve survival; however, there is great opportunity for these efforts to decrease the morbidity associated with our current approach.Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 10/2011; 6(6):819-834.
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ABSTRACT: BRAF V600E mutation has been reported to show a high specificity for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Using this marker to upgrade 'indeterminate' or 'suspicious' thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology to 'malignant' could potentially allow one-stage therapeutic total thyroidectomy. For a 14-month period, FNA cytology specimens in the Thy3-5 categories, which are the UK equivalents of indeterminate (Thy3a, atypical; Thy3f, follicular), suspicious for malignancy (Thy4) and malignant (Thy5) in the Bethesda System, underwent BRAF mutation testing by melt curve analysis. The results were correlated with histology. We tested 123 cytology specimens of which 12 (9.8%) failed. The BRAF mutation rate in the remainder was 16.2% (18/111), with 93 showing the wild-type. Seventeen mutations were V600E and one was non-V600E. The rate of mutation increased significantly (P < 0.0001 if Thy3a and Thy3f were combined) with the cytology category: 1/42 Thy3a (2.4%), 1/36 Thy3f (2.8%), 4/15 Thy4 (26.7%), 12/18 Thy5 (66.7%). All BRAF mutations correlated with PTC on histology, except for one recurrent PTC without histology. One mutation-positive case with Thy3a cytology showed the target lesion to be a 10-mm follicular adenoma on histology with an immediately adjacent 4-mm micro-PTC, in a patient who did not require total thyroidectomy. BRAF mutational analysis by melt curve analysis is feasible in routine thyroid cytology, and in our series had a 100% specificity for PTC in subsequent histology. The application of BRAF analysis could be useful for indeterminate cytology, but we suggest that it would be most appropriate and cost-effective for Thy4/suspicious cases, for which it could enable one-stage therapeutic surgery in the context of multidisciplinary discussion. In contrast, the sensitivity is low and there is no role for avoiding diagnostic thyroid surgery if wild-type BRAF is found.Cytopathology 01/2014; · 1.71 Impact Factor