Bipolar I disorder with mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms: a comparative longitudinal study.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Psychosomatik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle 06097, Germany.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.36). 03/2009; 259(3):131-6. DOI: 10.1007/s00406-007-0790-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate similarities and differences between bipolar I patients with and without mood-incongruent symptoms (MIS) over a long period of time, independently of longitudinal syndromatic constellations.
The Halle bipolarity longitudinal study (HABILOS) prospectively investigates 182 patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorders over a long period of time (x;- = 16.84 years). One thousand five hundred thirty-nine (1,539) episodes have been evaluated with standardized instruments. Patients and episodes were divided into two groups (with and without MIS) and were compared on various levels.
It was found: (1) The majority of the episodes of bipolar I patients during long-term course did not have MIS, but the majority of patients did. (2) Bipolar I patients with MIS differ from patients without MIS in the following features: (a) Bipolar I patients with MIS are more frequently males. (b) Bipolar I patients with MIS need treatment at a significantly younger age than those without MIS. (c) First manifestation of bipolar I disorder with MIS after the age of 50 is extremely seldom. (d) Bipolar I patients with MIS more frequently have relatives with schizophrenia. (e) Bipolar I patients with MIS more frequently become disabled and retire at a significantly younger age than patients without MIS and (f) Significantly fewer patients with MIS than those without MIS live in a stable partnership.
It can be concluded that bipolar I disorders with MIS are more severe disorders than bipolar I disorders without MIS. This finding in combination with the above results, however, can give rise to the conclusion that bipolar I disorders with MIS are the epiphenomenon of the overlap, possibly genetic, of a "schizophrenic spectrum" and a "bipolar spectrum" and their antagonistic influence creating a "schizo-affective" area between them as a kind of psychotic continuum between prototypes.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early-onset bipolar disorder is an impairing condition that is strongly associated with genetic inheritance. Neurocognitive deficits are core traits of this disorder which seem to be present in both young and adult forms. Deficits in verbal memory and attention are persistent within euthymic phases in bipolar adults, adolescents, and children. In younger samples, including type I or II and not otherwise specified patients, executive functions are not widely impaired and the existence of visual-spatial deficits remains unclear. The main aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive performance in young stabilized type I or II bipolar patients and healthy controls. Fifteen medicated adolescents with bipolar disorder and 15 healthy adolescents, matched in age and gender, were compared on visual-spatial skills (reasoning, memory, visual-motor accuracy) and executive functioning (attention and working memory, set-shifting, inhibition) using t-tests and MANCOVA. Correcting for verbal competence, MANCOVA showed that patients performed significantly worse than controls in letters and numbers sequencing (P = 0.003), copy (P < 0.001) and immediate recall (P = 0.007) of the Rey Complex Figure Test, interference of the Stroop Color-Word Test (P = 0.007) and non-perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (P = 0.038). Impaired cognitive performance was found in young bipolar patients in working memory, visual-motor skills, and inhibitory control.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 11/2010; 261(3):195-203. · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The significance of psychosis has yet to be fully understood and research is complicated because psychosis is often a state rather than trait occurrence. In youth, psychoticlike phenomena are common. Rates of lifetime psychotic symptoms are higher than rates of psychosis during a current episode of mania or depression, at least in youth. Rates vary widely between studies. Hallucinations are also more common than delusions in youth. Psychotic phenomena can be mood congruent or incongruent. A good mental status examination requires close questioning. There are several interviews that structure how questions are asked, and rating scales that help anchor severity.
    Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 10/2013; 22(4):569-80. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paranoia is commonly a mood-incongruent psychotic symptom of mania which may be related to dopamine dysregulation. Progesterone and its metabolite allopregnanolone (ALLO) have been found in animals to antagonize the effects of dopamine. We therefore examined serum progesterone, its endogenous antagonist DHEAS and polymorphisms of the genes coding for certain steroidogenetic enzymes (AKR1C4, HSD3B2, and SRD5A1) in 64 males and 96 females with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder with or without paranoid ideation during mood elevation. Euthymic morning serum progesterone, DHEAS and cortisol concentrations were measured in males and in premenopausal women who were in follicular phase and not taking oral contraceptives. In women only, SNPs in AKR1C4 reduced the likelihood of having exhibited paranoid ideation by circa 60%. The haplotype of all 4 SNPs in the AKR1C4 gene reduced the risk of exhibiting paranoia by 80% (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.61, p=0.05). A history of paranoid ideation was not, however, related to progesterone or DHEAS concentration. Serum DHEAS and progesterone concentrations were lower in men who had shown paranoid ideation during mania/hypomania compared with those who had not (F=7.30, p=0.006) however this was not coupled to polymorphisms in the selected genes. The ancestral G in rs4659174 in HSD3B2 was in men associated with a lower risk of paranoid ideation (likelihood ratio χ(2) 3.97, p=0.046, OR 0.31 (95% CI 0.10-0.96)) but did not correlate with hormone concentrations. Hence, gene variants in the steroidogenetic pathway and steroids concentration differences may be involved in the susceptibility to paranoia during mood elevation.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2012; 22(9):632-40. · 3.68 Impact Factor