Bipolar I disorder with mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms: a comparative longitudinal study.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate similarities and differences between bipolar I patients with and without mood-incongruent symptoms (MIS) over a long period of time, independently of longitudinal syndromatic constellations.
The Halle bipolarity longitudinal study (HABILOS) prospectively investigates 182 patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorders over a long period of time (x;- = 16.84 years). One thousand five hundred thirty-nine (1,539) episodes have been evaluated with standardized instruments. Patients and episodes were divided into two groups (with and without MIS) and were compared on various levels.
It was found: (1) The majority of the episodes of bipolar I patients during long-term course did not have MIS, but the majority of patients did. (2) Bipolar I patients with MIS differ from patients without MIS in the following features: (a) Bipolar I patients with MIS are more frequently males. (b) Bipolar I patients with MIS need treatment at a significantly younger age than those without MIS. (c) First manifestation of bipolar I disorder with MIS after the age of 50 is extremely seldom. (d) Bipolar I patients with MIS more frequently have relatives with schizophrenia. (e) Bipolar I patients with MIS more frequently become disabled and retire at a significantly younger age than patients without MIS and (f) Significantly fewer patients with MIS than those without MIS live in a stable partnership.
It can be concluded that bipolar I disorders with MIS are more severe disorders than bipolar I disorders without MIS. This finding in combination with the above results, however, can give rise to the conclusion that bipolar I disorders with MIS are the epiphenomenon of the overlap, possibly genetic, of a "schizophrenic spectrum" and a "bipolar spectrum" and their antagonistic influence creating a "schizo-affective" area between them as a kind of psychotic continuum between prototypes.
- SourceAvailable from: Michèle Wessa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Tractography studies investigating white matter (WM) abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorder have yielded heterogeneous results owing to small sample sizes. The small size limits their generalizability, a critical issue for neuroimaging studies of biomarkers of bipolar I disorder (BPI). OBJECTIVES To study WM abnormalities using whole-brain tractography in a large international multicenter sample of BPI patients and to compare these alterations between patients with or without a history of psychotic features during mood episodes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional, multicenter, international, Q-ball imaging tractography study comparing 118 BPI patients and 86 healthy control individuals. In addition, among the patient group, we compared those with and without a history of psychotic features. University hospitals in France, Germany, and the United States contributed participants. INTERVENTIONS Participants underwent assessment using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies at the French sites or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at the German and US sites. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired using the same acquisition parameters and scanning hardware at each site. We reconstructed 22 known deep WM tracts using Q-ball imaging tractography and an automatized segmentation technique. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Generalized fractional anisotropy values along each reconstructed WM tract. RESULTS Compared with controls, BPI patients had significant reductions in mean generalized fractional anisotropy values along the body and the splenium of the corpus callosum, the left cingulum, and the anterior part of the left arcuate fasciculus when controlling for age, sex, and acquisition site (corrected for multiple testing). Patients with a history of psychotic features had a lower mean generalized fractional anisotropy value than those without along the body of the corpus callosum (corrected for multiple testing). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this multicenter sample, BPI patients had reduced WM integrity in interhemispheric, limbic, and arcuate WM tracts. Interhemispheric pathways are more disrupted in patients with than in those without psychotic symptoms. Together these results highlight the existence of an anatomic disconnectivity in BPI and further underscore a role for interhemispheric disconnectivity in the pathophysiological features of psychosis in BPI.JAMA Psychiatry 02/2014; 71(4). DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4513 · 12.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The G72/G30 gene is one of the common loci shared both by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies accumulating since the discovery of this gene complex produced controversial results in both disorders in different populations. We investigated the association between the G72/G30 gene and bipolar I disorder (BPI) in the Romanian population paying special attention to the association of G72/G30 with lifetime psychosis and in particular with persecutory delusions in BPI patients. Fourteen G72/G30-SNPs were genotyped in a Romanian sample of 198 BPI patients and 180 controls screened for psychiatric disorders. Statistical analysis was performed with FAMHAP and HAPLOVIEW-v3.32. The significance level of the results was corrected through permutations in 100,000 simulations. None of the fourteen SNPs was associated with the global diagnosis of BPI in our total patient sample or with the psychotic BPI subtype. When confining the psychotic phenotype to persecutory delusions, we observed trends to association for SNPs previously associated with schizophrenia and persecutory delusions in BPI [M21 (P=0.080); M22 (P=0.092; P=0.042 under dominant transmission model); M24 (P=0.092)]. Four SNPs reached nominal significance in the non-psychotic BPI subgroup [rs3916965 (M12) (P=0.044), rs1935057 (P=0.037), rs3916967 (M14) (P=0.043), and rs2391191 (M15, non-synonymous) (P=0.043)]. After correction through permutations, the haploblock GA including M14 and M15 showed a trend to association with BPI (P=0.0524; OR=1.82) in the non-psychotic BPI subgroup. We report a potential association of different G72/G30-SNPs with non-psychotic mood episodes and with persecutory delusions in BPI Romanian patients. The results represent a first partial replication of two studies: Williams et al. (2006) and Schulze et al. (2005). The results have just a suggestive value since the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was not applied.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 03/2010; 34(4):657-63. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.03.008 · 4.03 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schizoaffective disorder is a common diagnosis in mental health services. The present article aims to provide an overview of diagnostic reliability, symptomatology, outcome, neurobiology and treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Literature was identified by searches in "Medline" and "Cochrane Library". The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder has a low reliability. There are marked differences between the current diagnostic systems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms, no clear boundaries were found between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and affective disorders. Common neurobiological factors were found across the traditional diagnostic categories. Schizoaffective disorder according to ICD-10 criteria, but not to DSM-IV criteria, shows a more favorable outcome than schizophrenia. With regard to treatment, only a small and heterogeneous database exists. Due to the low reliability and questionable validity there is a substantial need for revision and unification of the current diagnostic concepts of schizoaffective disorder. If future diagnostic systems return to Kraepelin's dichotomous classification of non-organic psychosis or adopt a dimensional diagnostic approach, schizoaffective disorder will disappear from the psychiatric nomenclature. A nosological model with multiple diagnostic entities, however, would be compatible with retaining the diagnostic category of schizoaffective disorder.European Psychiatry 04/2011; 26(3):159-65. DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.03.010 · 3.21 Impact Factor