Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppresses inflammation and promotes recovery after ischemic injury.
ABSTRACT The brain inflammatory response induced by stroke contributes to cell death and impairs neurogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a coactivator of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and required for NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we evaluated PARP inhibition as a means of suppressing post-stroke inflammation and improving outcome after stroke. Rats were subjected to bilateral carotid occlusion-reperfusion, and treatment with the PARP inhibitor N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide (PJ34) was begun 48 h later. PJ34 was found to rapidly suppress the ischemia-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis. Behavioral tests performed 6 to 8 weeks after ischemia showed deficits in spatial memory and learning that were lessened by the PJ34 treatment. Immunohistochemical evaluation of hippocampus at 8 weeks after ischemia showed increased neuronal density in CA1 layer of PJ34-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated animals. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling showed formation of new neurons in hippocampal CA1 area in PJ34-treated animals, but not in vehicle-treated animals. Together, these results suggest that treatment with a PARP inhibitor for several days after ischemia enhances long-term neuronal survival and neurogenesis by reducing inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Cranial radiation therapy causes a progressive decline in cognitive function that is linked to impaired neurogenesis. Chronic inflammation accompanies radiation injury, suggesting that inflammatory processes may contribute to neural stem cell dysfunction. Here, we show that neuroinflammation alone inhibits neurogenesis and that inflammatory blockade with indomethacin, a common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, restores neurogenesis after endotoxin-induced inflammation and augments neurogenesis after cranial irradiation.Science 01/2004; 302(5651):1760-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most characteristic feature of microglial cells is their rapid activation in response to even minor pathological changes in the CNS. Microglia activation is a key factor in the defence of the neural parenchyma against infectious diseases, inflammation, trauma, ischaemia, brain tumours and neurodegeneration. Microglia activation occurs as a graded response in vivo. The transformation of microglia into potentially cytotoxic cells is under strict control and occurs mainly in response to neuronal or terminal degeneration, or both. Activated microglia are mainly scavenger cells but also perform various other functions in tissue repair and neural regeneration. They form a network of immune alert resident macrophages with a capacity for immune surveillance and control. Activated microglia can destroy invading micro-organisms, remove potentially deleterious debris, promote tissue repair by secreting growth factors and thus facilitate the return to tissue homeostasis. An understanding of intercellular signalling pathways for microglia proliferation and activation could form a rational basis for targeted intervention on glial reactions to injuries in the CNS.Trends in Neurosciences 09/1996; 19(8):312-8. · 13.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a nuclear DNA-binding protein that participates in the DNA base excision repair pathway in response to genotoxic stress in mammalian cells. Here we show that PARP-1-deficient cells are defective in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription activation, but not in its nuclear translocation, in response to TNF-alpha. Treating mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in the rapid activation of NF-kappaB in macrophages from PARP-1(+/+) but not from PARP-1(-/-) mice. PARP-1-deficient mice were extremely resistant to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. The molecular basis for this resistance relies on an almost complete abrogation of NF-kappaB-dependent accumulation of TNF-alpha in the serum and a down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), leading to decreased NO synthesis, which is the main source of free radical generation during inflammation. These results demonstrate a functional association in vivo between PARP-1 and NF-kappaB, with consequences for the transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB and a systemic inflammatory process.The EMBO Journal 09/1999; 18(16):4446-54. · 9.82 Impact Factor