Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppresses inflammation and promotes recovery after ischemic injury

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 5.34). 02/2009; 29(4):820-9. DOI: 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The brain inflammatory response induced by stroke contributes to cell death and impairs neurogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a coactivator of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and required for NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we evaluated PARP inhibition as a means of suppressing post-stroke inflammation and improving outcome after stroke. Rats were subjected to bilateral carotid occlusion-reperfusion, and treatment with the PARP inhibitor N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide (PJ34) was begun 48 h later. PJ34 was found to rapidly suppress the ischemia-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis. Behavioral tests performed 6 to 8 weeks after ischemia showed deficits in spatial memory and learning that were lessened by the PJ34 treatment. Immunohistochemical evaluation of hippocampus at 8 weeks after ischemia showed increased neuronal density in CA1 layer of PJ34-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated animals. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling showed formation of new neurons in hippocampal CA1 area in PJ34-treated animals, but not in vehicle-treated animals. Together, these results suggest that treatment with a PARP inhibitor for several days after ischemia enhances long-term neuronal survival and neurogenesis by reducing inflammation.

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