Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae: asymptomatic cortical venous drainage portends less aggressive clinical course.
ABSTRACT Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) with cortical venous drainage (CVD) (Borden Types 2 and 3) are reported to carry a 15% annual risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical course of Type 2 and 3 dAVFs that present with ICH or NHND with those that do not.
Twenty-eight patients with Type 2 or 3 dAVFs were retrospectively evaluated. CVD was classified as asymptomatic (aCVD) if patients presented incidentally or with pulsatile tinnitus or orbital phenomena. CVD was classified as symptomatic (sCVD) if patients presented with ICH or NHND. Occurrence of new ICH or new or worsening NHND between diagnosis and disconnection of CVD or last follow-up (if not disconnected) was noted. Overall frequency of events was compared using Fisher's exact test. Cumulative, event-free survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank testing.
Of 17 patients with aCVD, 1 (5.9%) developed ICH and none experienced NHND or death during the median 31.4-month follow-up period. Of 11 patients with sCVD, 2 (18.2%) developed ICH and 3 (27.3%) experienced new or worsened NHND over the median 9.7-month follow-up period. One of these patients subsequently died. Overall frequency of ICH or NHND was significantly lower in patients with aCVD versus sCVD (P = 0.022). Respective annual event rates were 1.4 versus 19.0%. aCVD patients had significantly higher cumulative event-free survival (P = 0.0016).
Cranial dAVFs with aCVD may have a less aggressive clinical course than those with sCVD.
SourceAvailable from: Robert M Starke[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECT The goal of this study was to evaluate the obliteration rate of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and to compare obliteration rates between cavernous sinus (CS) and noncavernous sinus (NCS) DAVFs, and between DAVFs with and without cortical venous drainage (CVD). METHODS A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed. The CS DAVFs and the NCS DAVFs were categorized using the Barrow and Borden classification systems, respectively. The DAVFs were also categorized by location and by the presence of CVD. Statistical analyses of pooled data were conducted to assess complete obliteration rates in CS and NCS DAVFs, and in DAVFs with and without CVD. RESULTS Nineteen studies were included, comprising 729 patients harboring 743 DAVFs treated with SRS. The mean obliteration rate was 63% (95% CI 52.4%-73.6%). Complete obliteration for CS and NCS DAVFs was achieved in 73% and 58% of patients, respectively. No significant difference in obliteration rates between CS and NCS DAVFs was found (OR 1.72, 95% CI 0.66-4.46; p = 0.27). Complete obliteration in DAVFs with and without CVD was observed in 56% and 75% of patients, respectively. A significantly higher obliteration rate was observed in DAVFs without CVD compared with DAVFs with CVD (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.07-5.28; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with SRS offers favorable rates of DAVF obliteration with low complication rates. Patients harboring DAVFs that are refractory or not amenable to endovascular or surgical therapy may be safely and effectively treated using SRS.Journal of Neurosurgery 12/2014; 122(2):1-10. DOI:10.3171/2014.10.JNS14871 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Dural arteriovenous fistulae can cause intracranial hemorrhage, but influences on this are unclear.Summary of reviewWe searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1966), Embase (from 1980), and the Cochrane Library in September 2013 for studies of ≥50 adults with dural arteriovenous fistulae describing death or intracranial hemorrhage. Of 16 studies of retrospective associations between dural arteriovenous fistulae vascular anatomy and prior mode of presentation, fistula location in the cavernous sinus was consistently associated with nonhemorrhagic modes of presentation; in five studies involving 855 patients, fistulae with retrograde leptomeningeal (cortical) venous drainage were associated with prior presentation with intracranial hemorrhage (pooled odds ratio 23·2, 95% CI 13·8 to 39·0; I2 = 0%). Future intracranial hemorrhage during untreated clinical course was statistically significantly associated with the presence of venous varix in one study and with presentation with intracranial hemorrhage in patients with retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage in another. In 19 observational studies of treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulae involving 2329 patients, the pooled risk of death was 1·2% (95% CI 0·6 to 1·8, I2 = 35%), that of nonfatal intracranial haemorrhage was 0·5% (95%CI 0·2 to 0·8, I2 = 9%), and that of nonfatal cerebral infarction was 0·7% (95% CI 0·3 to 1·4, I2 = 52%), for a combined risk of 2·5% (95% CI 1·4 to 3·9, I2 = 69%).Conclusions Retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage seems strongly associated with intracranial hemorrhage at presentation of dural arteriovenous fistula, but its association with subsequent intracranial hemorrhage is less clear. Short-term complications of dural arteriovenous fistula treatment affect 2–3% of patients in published reports.International Journal of Stroke 08/2014; 9(6). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12337 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular lesions, representing 7-15% of all intracranial AVMs. Although less frequent than supratentorial AVMs, they present higher rupture, morbidity, and mortality rates. Microsurgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular neurosurgery are treatment options for obliteration of those lesions. In this paper, we present a critical review of the literature about the management of posterior fossa AVM. A MEDLINE-based search of articles published between January 1960 and January 2014 was performed. The search terms: "Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformation," "microsurgery," "radiosurgery," and "endovascular" were used to identify the articles. Current data supports the role of microsurgery as the gold standard treatment for cerebellar AVMs. Brainstem AVMs are usually managed with radiotherapy and endovascular therapy; microsurgery is considered in cases of pial brainstem AVMs. Succsseful treatment of posterior fossa AVMs depend on an integrated work of neurosurgeons, radiosurgeons, and endovascular neurosurgery. Although the development of radiosurgery and endovascular techniques is remarkable, microsurgery remains as the gold standard treatment for most of those lesions.Surgical Neurology International 02/2015; 6:31. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.152140 · 1.18 Impact Factor