Thyroidectomy in a patient with multinodular dyshormonogenetic goitre - A case of pendred syndrome confirmed by mutations in the PDS/SLC26A4 gene

Department ofPaediatrics, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM (Impact Factor: 1). 01/2009; 21(12):1179-84. DOI: 10.1515/JPEM.2008.21.12.1179
Source: PubMed


We report a young woman with genetically confirmed Pendred syndrome and discuss the current therapeutic strategies of dyshormonogenetic goitre. A small diffuse thyroid enlargement developed during infancy and although substitution therapy with L-thyroxine was adequate, it progressed and underwent multinodular transformation. Cervical ultrasound at the age of 22 years demonstrated three solid nodules and fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed a finding typical of follicular adenoma. It is known that dyshormonogenetic goitres have a tendency to grow despite appropriate treatment with L-thyroxine. Management of a patient with Pendred syndrome requires careful follow-up and regular imaging of the thyroid. Although the therapeutic approach to dyshormonogenetic goitres is still controversial, in our patient we chose total thyroidectomy as the most advantageous method to prevent the development of malignancies that may arise more frequently from dyshormonogenetic goitres than from goitres of other aetiologies.

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    ABSTRACT: Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS), an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21) of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junctions among patients affected with Graves' disease (GD) hyperthyroidism. Ten mono-allelic variants were identified, seven of which are intronic and previously unreported. Two, c.898A>C (p.I300L) and c.1061T>C (p.F354S), of the three exonic variants are non synonymous. The p.F354S variant is already described to be involved in PS or NSHL inheritances. The exploration by PCR-RFLP of p.I300L and p.F354S variants among 132 GD patients, 105 Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), 206 Healthy subjects and 102 families with NSHL have shown the presence of both variants. The p.F354S variation was identified both among patients (1~HT and 3 GD) and healthy subjects ( n =5). Whereas, the p.I300L variant was identified only in GD patients ( n =3). Our studies provide evidence of the importance of systematic analysis of SLC26A4 gene sequences on models other than deafness. This approach allows the identification of new variants and the review of the pathogenic effects of certain mono-allelic variants reported responsible for PS and NSHL development.
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    ABSTRACT: Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness, a partial defect in iodide organification, and dyshormonogenetic goiter. Several cases of Pendred syndrome with follicular thyroid carcinomas were reported previously. Here we report identical twin patients with Pendred syndrome, who had thyroid tumors with distinct histopathological findings. 34-year-old identical twins with congenital deafness and goiter were referred to our hospital with complaint of neck discomfort. The genetic testing showed that these twin patients were compound heterozygotes carrying the same two mutations in the Pendred's syndrome (PDS / SLC26A4) gene (c2168A>G and ins2110GCTGG), which confirmed the diagnoses of Pendred syndrome. They underwent thyroidectomy. Histological examination of the thyroid tumors resected from these twin patients revealed follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and diffuse and nodular goiter without any evidence of malignancy, respectively. To our knowledge, the former is the first case of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in Pendred Syndrome.
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