Long Sleep Duration and Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Body Fat

Department of Anthropology, Research Centre for Anthropology and Health, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
American Journal of Human Biology (Impact Factor: 1.7). 05/2009; 21(3):371-6. DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20884
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To assess the association between short sleep duration and overweight/obesity and body fat (BF) and to identify correlates of short sleep duration in a sample of Portuguese children. A cross-sectional study of children 7-9 years (n = 4511) was performed between October 2002 and June 2003. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured, and parents filled out a questionnaire about family characteristics as well as sleep duration. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and BF (%) both decreased by long sleep duration. After adjusted for confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for overweight/obesity and sleep duration were as follows: reference >11 h/d; 10-11 h/d, OR: 1.3; confidence interval (CI):1.26, 1.33; 9-10 h/d, OR: 1.16; CI: 1.13, 1.19; and <9 h, OR: 3.22; CI: 3.11, 3.32. Children whose parents had a low educational level slept less time during each night than children whose parents had a higher educational level; children who spent more time watching television slept less time than those who watched less television, and those children engaged in physical activity slept more time each night than sedentary children. Our results showed an inverse relationship between long sleep duration and overweight/obesity prevalence as well as with body fat, and these findings are important because sleep duration is a potentially modifiable risk factor that could be important to consider in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

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    • "Sleep is critical for adolescent health, development, and functioning. Inadequate sleep quantity and quality have been associated with poor school performance, mental health problems, poor sociability, behavioral problems, and the development of obesity and its accompanying comorbidities in adolescents [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]. Furthermore, sleep problems experienced during adolescence are associated with increased incidence of adulthood depression, anxiety, attention problems , and aggressive behaviors, thereby indicating a longterm effect of poor sleep on mental health [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To examine whether secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with restless sleep and/or nighttime sleep duration among adolescents. Methods. Data were analyzed from 1,592 adolescents who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey cohort study. Ordinal logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations between frequency of SHS exposure in the past month and frequency of restless sleep and nighttime sleep duration, respectively. Results. SHS exposure was significantly positively associated with restless sleep and significantly negatively associated with sleep duration. In fully adjusted models, compared with students who reported never being exposed to SHS in the past month, students who reported a low, medium, or high frequency of SHS exposure were 1.53, 1.76, and 2.51 times as likely, respectively, to report more frequent restless sleep (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.08-2.16; OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.22-2.53; OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.59-3.98). With regard to sleep duration, as frequency of SHS exposure increased by one category, nighttime sleep duration during the week and weekend decreased by 4 minutes (B = -0.06, 95% CI = -0.01- - 0.11) and 6 minutes (B = -0.09, 95% CI = -0.03- - 0.14), respectively. Conclusions. This study suggests that frequency of SHS exposure has a significant dose-response relationship with restless sleep and sleep duration in adolescents.
    04/2014; 2014:374732. DOI:10.1155/2014/374732
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    • "The recommendation was supported by observational data from two large cross-sectional studies involving thousands of children and a meta-analysis of sleep data based on 12 studies with 30,002 children aged 3–18 y from France, Tunisia, Japan, Germany, USA, Brazil, Portugal, United Kingdom, Canada, Taiwan and China [3-5]. Numerous studies also have documented that short sleep duration is associated with increased risk of childhood and adult obesity [3,4,6-10]. In an adult sleep debt study, short sleep duration led to a decrease in serum leptin and an increase in ghrelin suggesting that short sleep might stimulate appetite and increase food intake [11,12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relationship with BMI, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, ethnicity and physical activity. Time spent on sleep and physical activity among 333 Hispanic and 150 black children (9--12 y) was measured objectively by accelerometry over 5--7 consecutive days. The children were recruited at 14 underserved community centers in Houston, Texas, between January 2009 and February 2011. Body weight and height were measured in duplicate. The majority of children (88.8%) wore the monitor for 6 consecutive days. The children slept 8.8 +/- 0.6 (mean +/- SD) h/d and spent 45 +/- 24 min/d on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Hispanic children slept 0.2 h/d longer (P < 0.001) than black children. Obese children slept 0.2 h/d less (P < 0.02) than normal-weight children. SES had no effect on sleep duration. There was a significant interaction between gender and age (P < 0.03); girls aged 11--12 y slept 0.3 h/d less than boys and the younger girls. Children slept 0.6 h/d longer (P < 0.001) during the weekend than weekdays. No relation was detected between sleep duration and MVPA time. Minority children living in a large metropolitan area in the US are not meeting the National Sleep Foundation recommendation for sleep duration of 10--11 h/d. Longitudinal studies based on objective measures are needed to establish causality between sleep duration and obesity risk among minority children.
    BMC Public Health 07/2013; 13(1):648. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-648 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Regardless of the aforementioned limitations, the association of sleep duration with BMI generally exhibits about a 1.5- to twofold increase in the likelihood of being a short sleeper when obesity is present.37–39 And although interventional studies aiming to modify sleep patterns in children are clearly needed, they may be fraught with substantial failure rates, particularly considering that both sleep regularity and sleep duration are maintained across long periods of time during childhood; and thus any intervention will likely need to be initiated very early in life if the effect is to be measurable.39 "
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    ABSTRACT: In modern life, children are unlikely to obtain sufficient or regular sleep and waking schedules. Inadequate sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, assessments of the obesogenic lifestyle, including as dietary and physical activity, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of sleep quality and quantity, and coexistence of sleep apnea. Inclusion of sleep as an integral component of research studies on childhood obesity should be done as part of the study planning process. Although parents and health professionals have quantified normal patterns of activities in children, sleep has been almost completely overlooked. As sleep duration in children appears to have declined, reciprocal obesity rates have increased. Also, increases in pediatric obesity rates have markedly increased the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Obesity and OSAS share common pathways underlying end-organ morbidity, potentially leading to reciprocal amplificatory effects. The relative paucity of data on the topics covered in the perspective below should serve as a major incentive toward future research on these critically important concepts.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 08/2012; 1264(1):135-41. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06723.x · 4.38 Impact Factor
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