TCR transgenes and transgene cassettes for TCR gene therapy: status in 2008
ABSTRACT The genetic introduction of T cell receptor genes into T cells has been developed over the past decade as a strategy to induce defined antigen-specific T cell immunity. With the potential value of TCR gene therapy well-established in murine models and the feasibility of infusion of TCR-modified autologous T cells shown in a first phase I trial, the next key step will be to transform TCR gene transfer from an experimental technique into a robust clinical strategy. In this review, we discuss the different properties of the TCR transgene and transgene cassette that can strongly affect both the efficacy and the safety of TCR gene transfer.
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ABSTRACT: The genetic engineering of T cells can lead to enhanced immune-mediated tumour destruction and harbors a great potential for the treatment of cancer. Recent efforts have centered on the design of receptors to re-direct the specificity of T cells towards tumour antigens by means of viral gene transfer. This strategy has shown great success in a number of phase one clinical trials. However, there are still challenges to overcome. On the one hand, T cell function can be further improved to optimize the therapeutic outcome. On the other hand, so called safety switches are required to deal with possible on and off target toxicities. In this review, we will give a brief summary of the success and risks of T cell gene therapy before discussing in detail current strategies to enhance effector function, persistence and safety of adoptively transferred T cells.Current Gene Therapy 01/2015; 15(3). · 4.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blockbuster antibody therapies have catapulted immune-based approaches to treat cancer into the consciousness of mainstay clinical research. On the back of this, other emerging immune-based therapies are providing great promise. T-cell therapy is one such area where recent trials using T cells genetically modified to express an antibody-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeted against the CD19 antigen have demonstrated impressive responses when adoptively transferred to patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The general concept of the CAR T cell was devised some 20 years ago. In this relatively short period of time, the technology to redirect T-cell function has moved at pace facilitating clinical translation; however, many questions remain with respect to developing the approach to improve CAR T-cell therapeutic activity and also to broaden the range of tumors that can be effectively targeted by this approach. This review highlights some of the underlying principles and compromises of CAR T-cell technology using the CD19-targeted CAR as a paradigm and discusses some of the issues that relate to targeting solid tumors with CAR T cells.Immunological Reviews 01/2014; 257(1):91-106. DOI:10.1111/imr.12126 · 12.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Flow cytometry-based analysis of lymphocyte division using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye dilution permits acquisition of data describing cellular proliferation and differentiation. For example, CFSE histogram data enable quantitative insight into cellular turnover rates by applying mathematical models and parameter estimation techniques. Several mathematical models have been developed using different types of deterministic or stochastic approaches. However, analysis of CFSE proliferation assays is based on the premise that the label is halved in the two daughter cells. Importantly, asymmetry of protein distribution in lymphocyte division is a basic biological feature of cell division with the degree of the asymmetry depending on various factors. Here, we review the recent literature on asymmetric lymphocyte division and CFSE-based lymphocyte proliferation analysis. We suggest that division- and label-structured mathematical models describing CFSE-based cell proliferation should take into account asymmetry and time-lag in cell proliferation. Utilization of improved modeling algorithms will permit straightforward quantification of essential parameters describing the performance of activated lymphocytes.Frontiers in Immunology 09/2013; 4:264. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00264