Antioxidant or neurotrophic factor treatment preserves function in a mouse model of neovascularization-associated oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT In several disease states, abnormal growth of blood vessels is associated with local neuronal degeneration. This is particularly true in ocular diseases such as retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and macular telangiectasia (MacTel), in which, despite the absence of large-scale leakage or hemorrhage, abnormal neovascularization (NV) is associated with local neuronal dysfunction. We describe here a retinal phenotype in mice with dysfunctional receptors for VLDL (Vldlr-/- mice) that closely resembles human retinal diseases in which abnormal intra- and subretinal NV is associated with photoreceptor cell death. Such cell death was evidenced by decreased cone and, to a lesser extent, rod opsin expression and abnormal electroretinograms. Cell death in the region of intraretinal vascular abnormalities was associated with an increased presence of markers associated with oxidative stress. Oral antioxidant supplementation protected against photoreceptor degeneration and preserved retinal function, despite the continued presence of abnormal intra- and subretinal vessels. What we believe to be novel, Müller cell-based, virally mediated delivery of neurotrophic compounds specifically to sites of NV was also neuroprotective. These observations demonstrate that neuronal loss secondary to NV can be prevented by the use of simple antioxidant dietary measures or cell-based delivery of neurotrophic factors, even when the underlying vascular phenotype is not altered.
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ABSTRACT: Angiostatic therapies designed to inhibit neovascularization associated with multiple pathological conditions have only been partially successful; complete inhibition has not been achieved. We demonstrate synergistic effects of combining angiostatic molecules that target distinct aspects of the angiogenic process, resulting in the complete inhibition of neovascular growth associated with development, ischemic retinopathy, and tumor growth, with little or no effect on normal, mature tissue vasculature. Tumor vascular obliteration using combination angiostatic therapy was associated with reduced tumor mass and increased survival in a rat 9L gliosarcoma model, whereas individual monotherapies were ineffective. Significant compensatory up-regulation of several proangiogenic factors was observed after treatment with a single angiostatic agent. In contrast, treatment with combination angiostatic therapy significantly reduced compensatory up-regulation. Therapies that combine angiostatic molecules targeting multiple, distinct aspects of the angiogenic process may represent a previously uncharacterized paradigm for the treatment of many devastating diseases with associated pathological neovascularization.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2007; 104(3):967-72. · 9.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is known that choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) may erode through the retinal pigment epithelium, infiltrate the neurosensory retina, and communicate with the retinal circulation in what has been referred to as a retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA). This is extremely common in the end stage of disciform disease. In recent years, the reverse also seems to be possible, as angiomatous proliferation originates from the retina and extends posteriorly into the subretinal space, eventually communicating in some cases with choroidal new vessels. This form of neovascular ARMD, termed retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in this article, can be confused with CNV. The purpose of this article is 1) to review the clinical and angiographic characteristics of a series of patients with RAP and 2) to propose a theoretical sequence of events that accounts for the neovascularized process. In this retrospective clinical and angiographic analysis, 143 eyes with RAP (108 patients) were reviewed and classified based on their vasogenic nature and course. Clinical biomicroscopic examination, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography were used to evaluate patients. The results of this series suggest that angiomatous proliferation within the retina is the first manifestation of the vasogenic process in this form of neovascular ARMD. Dilated retinal vessels and pre-, intra-, and subretinal hemorrhages and exudate evolve, surrounding the angiomatous proliferation as the process extends into the deep retina and subretinal space. One or more dilated compensatory retinal vessels perfuse and drain the neovascularization, sometimes forming a retinal-retinal anastomosis. Fluorescein angiography in these patients usually revealed indistinct staining simulating occult CNV. Indocyanine green angiography was useful to make an accurate diagnosis in most cases. It revealed a focal area of intense hyperfluorescence corresponding to the neovascularization ("hot spot") and other characteristic findings. Based on understanding of the nature and progression of the neovascularized process, patients with RAP were classified into three vasogenic stages. Stage I involved proliferation of intraretinal capillaries originating from the deep retinal complex (intraretinal neovascularization [IRN]). Stage II was determined by growth of the retinal vessels into the subretinal space (subretinal neovascularization [SRN]). Stage III occurred when CNV could clearly be determined clinically or angiographically. A vascularized pigment epithelial detachment and RCA were inconsistent features of this stage. Retinal angiomatous proliferation appears to be a distinct subgroup of neovascular ARMD. It may present in one of three vasogenic stages: IRN, SRN, or CNV. Whereas ICG angiography is helpful in diagnosing RAP and in documenting the stage of the neovascularized process, it is frequently difficult to determine the precise nature and location of the new vessel formation. It is important for clinicians to recognize the vasogenic potential and the associated manifestations of this peculiar form of neovascular ARMD so that a proper diagnosis can be made, and when possible, an appropriate management administered.Retina 02/2001; 21(5):416-34. · 2.81 Impact Factor
The Lancet 04/1999; 353(9157):981-2. · 38.28 Impact Factor