Incidence of Noninfectious Conditions in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents in The HAART Era

Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8111, USA.
JAMA Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 5.73). 02/2009; 163(2):164-71. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.163.2.164
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-era incident rates for the first episode of noninfectious conditions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected youth in order to identify HAART-era changes in the natural history of perinatal HIV infection.
Multicenter prospective cohort study.
More than 80 sites in the United States including Puerto Rico.
Perinatally HIV-infected youth.
Incidence rates (IRs) per 100 person-years were calculated for targeted noninfectious conditions occurring in perinatally HIV-infected children. A chi(2) test for linear trend was used to evaluate changes in the rates from 2001 to 2006.
Two thousand five hundred seventy-five perinatally HIV-infected children (51%, female; 59%, black, non-Hispanic) were enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) 219C between 2000 and 2006 and were followed up for a median of 59 months. The 10 most common noninfectious conditions were pregnancy conditions (IR = 6.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.9-9.3), birth defects (IR = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.1-0.3), gynecological dysplasias (IR = 5.92; 95% CI, 3.9-8.6), condyloma (IR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.1-0.2), encephalopathy (IR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5), pancreatitis (IR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), cardiac disorders (IR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), renal disorders (IR = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), peripheral neuropathy (IR = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), and idiopathic thrombocytic purpura (IR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.1-0.3). Among these conditions, 5 showed significant trends, with IRs increasing over time in pregnancy-related conditions (P < .001) and gynecological dysplasias (P = .02) while IRs decreased over time for encephalopathy (P < .001), pancreatitis (P = .002), and cardiac disorders (P = .007).
Between 2001 and 2006, the incidence for 3 conditions decreased and increased for 2 others, demonstrating the change in medical issues and conditions in perinatally infected youth. Continued surveillance with appropriate tools will be needed to assess the long-term effects of HAART and HIV as well as development of new noninfectious conditions of HIV.

Download full-text


Available from: Sharon Nachman, Sep 26, 2015
18 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Youths perinatally infected with HIV often receive psychotropic medication and behavioral treatment for emotional and behavioral symptoms. We describe patterns of intervention for HIV-positive youth and youth in a control group in the United States. Three hundred nineteen HIV-positive youth and 256 controls, aged 6 to 17 years, enrolled in the International Maternal Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials 1055, a prospective, 2-year observational study of psychiatric symptoms. One hundred seventy-four youth in the control group were perinatally exposed to HIV, and 82 youth were uninfected children living in households with HIV-positive members. Youth and their primary caregivers completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-referenced symptom-rating scales. Children's medication and behavioral psychiatric intervention histories were collected at entry. We evaluated the association of past or current psychiatric treatment with HIV status, baseline symptoms, and impairment by using multiple logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. HIV-positive youth and youth in the control group had a similar prevalence of psychiatric symptoms (61%) and impairment (14% to 15%). One hundred four (18%) participants received psychotropic medications (stimulants [14%], antidepressants [6%], and neuroleptic agents [4%]), and 127 (22%) received behavioral treatment. More HIV-positive youth than youth in the control group received psychotropic medication (23% vs 12%) and behavioral treatment (27% vs 17%). After adjusting for symptom class and confounders, HIV-positive children had twice the odds of children in the control group of having received stimulants and >4 times the odds of having received antidepressants. Caregiver-reported symptoms or impairment were associated with higher odds of intervention than reports by children alone. HIV-positive children are more likely to receive mental health interventions than control-group children. Pediatricians and caregivers should consider available mental health treatment options for all children living in families affected by HIV.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2009; 124(2):627-36. DOI:10.1542/peds.2008-2441 · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tremendous success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high-resource countries has changed the face of the epidemic. A perinatally HIV-infected child now faces a chronic disease rather than a progressive, fatal one. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. These include maintaining adherence to long-term, likely life-long therapy; selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations and the lack of pharmacokinetic and safety data in children; and overcoming extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care now focuses on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high-resource countries encourages expansion of pediatric treatment programs in low-resource countries, where most HIV-infected children live, and provides important lessons about how the epidemic changes with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children.
    Annual review of medicine 08/2009; 61(1):169-85. DOI:10.1146/ · 12.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically changed the natural history of HIV infection in children, but there are few studies in the literature about the incidence of clinical manifestations after HAART in this population, compared with adults. The aim of this study was to describe the influence of the widespread use of HAART on the development of opportunistic infections and organ-specific diseases in HIV-infected children.Methods An observational study of a cohort of 366 vertically HIV-infected children followed from 1990 to 2006 was carried out. According to the main antiretroviral protocol used, three calendar periods (CPs) were defined and compared: CP1 (1990–1996: no patients on HAART), CP2 (1997–1999: <60% on HAART) and CP3 (2000–2006: >60% on HAART).ResultsChildren experienced a progressive increase in CD4 T cell count (P<0.05) and a decrease in HIV viral load from 1996 onwards (P<0.05). Similarly, rates of death, AIDS, opportunistic infections (bacteraemia, candidosis, cryptosporidiosis and bacterial pneumonia) and organ-specific diseases (wasting syndrome, thrombocytopenia, cardiomyopathy, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and HIV-associated encephalopathy) were lower in CP2 and CP3 than in CP1.Conclusions This study provides evidence of improved clinical outcomes in HIV-infected children over time and shows that mortality, AIDS, opportunistic infections and organ-specific diseases declined as HAART was progressively instituted in this population.
    HIV Medicine 12/2009; 11(4):245 - 252. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00768.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
Show more