Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune diseases in adults.
ABSTRACT To examine whether childhood traumatic stress increased the risk of developing autoimmune diseases as an adult.
Retrospective cohort study of 15,357 adult health maintenance organization members enrolled in the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study from 1995 to 1997 in San Diego, California, and eligible for follow-up through 2005. ACEs included childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; witnessing domestic violence; growing up with household substance abuse, mental illness, parental divorce, and/or an incarcerated household member. The total number of ACEs (ACE Score range = 0-8) was used as a measure of cumulative childhood stress. The outcome was hospitalizations for any of 21 selected autoimmune diseases and 4 immunopathology groupings: T- helper 1 (Th1) (e.g., idiopathic myocarditis); T-helper 2 (Th2) (e.g., myasthenia gravis); Th2 rheumatic (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis); and mixed Th1/Th2 (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia).
Sixty-four percent reported at least one ACE. The event rate (per 10,000 person-years) for a first hospitalization with any autoimmune disease was 31.4 in women and 34.4 in men. First hospitalizations for any autoimmune disease increased with increasing number of ACEs (p < .05). Compared with persons with no ACEs, persons with >or=2 ACEs were at a 70% increased risk for hospitalizations with Th1, 80% increased risk for Th2, and 100% increased risk for rheumatic diseases (p < .05).
Childhood traumatic stress increased the likelihood of hospitalization with a diagnosed autoimmune disease decades into adulthood. These findings are consistent with recent biological studies on the impact of early life stress on subsequent inflammatory responses.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: William S Pearson, May 18, 2015
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In Western countries, many children are affected by the separation of their parents. Our main objective was to assess the possible impact of parental separation family structure on certain aspects of somatic health in low-age children. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data collected in the framework of free preventive medicine consultations in the French Community of Belgium. The data was derived from assessments conducted, between 2006 and 2012, on children 7 to 11 months after birth during which information of 79701 infants was collected regarding the risk of sudden infant death, psychomotor development, and development in terms of height and weight. The main outcome measures were: episode of risk of sudden infant death, polysomnography, home monitoring, psychomotor development, and body mass index. The parents of 6.6% of the infants were separated. We established multivariable models, based on the presence or absence of confounders. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of symptoms perceived as frightening, notably at night, of a prescription for a polysomnography, of an abnormal polysomnography result, and of follow-up by home monitoring were thus respectively 1.3 (1.1-1.6), 1.1 (0.9-1.3), 1.8 (1.3-2.4), and 1.3 (1.1-1.6). The adjusted ORs (95% CI) for psychomotor delay and for a body mass index above the 97(th) percentile were respectively 1.3 (1.0-1.6) and 1.2 (1.1-1.3) in the event of separation. This study confirms the possibility that not living with both parents is an independent risk factor for the somatic health and psychomotor development of infants. This observation should be verified because it would have a major impact on the actions of family doctors and other first-line healthcare providers, in particular with regard to information and targeted prevention.BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1505-z · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives.The Permanente journal 01/2015; 19(2):92-5. DOI:10.7812/TPP/14-169
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative health outcomes, but the evidence has had limited application in primary care practice. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the research on associations between ACEs and adult health outcomes to inform nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care practice. The databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Social Abstracts were searched for articles published in English between 2008 and 2013 using the search term "adverse childhood experiences." Forty-two research articles were included in the synthesis. The evidence was synthesized and is reported following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis procedure (PRISMA). ACEs have been associated with health consequences including physical and psychological conditions, risk behaviors, developmental disruption, and increased healthcare utilization. Generalization of the results is limited by a majority of studies (41/42) measuring childhood adversity using self-report measures. NPs are encouraged to incorporate assessment of patients' childhood history in routine primary care and to consider the evidence that supports a relationship between ACEs and health. Although difficult, talking about patient's childhood experiences may positively influence health outcomes. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.03/2015; DOI:10.1002/2327-6924.12215