Associations of depression with C-reactive protein, IL-1, and IL-6: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT To assess the magnitude and direction of associations of depression with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 in community and clinical samples.
Systematic review of articles published between January 1967 and January 2008 in the PubMed and PsycINFO electronic databases was performed. Effect sizes were calculated as stat d and meta-analyzed, using random-effects models.
Each inflammatory marker was positively associated with depression; CRP, d = 0.15 (95% CI = 0.10, 0.21), p < .001; IL-6, d = 0.25 (95% CI = 0.18, 0.31), p < .001; IL-1, d = 0.35 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.67), p = .03; IL-1ra, d = 0.25 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.46), p = .02. Associations were strongest in clinically depressed patient samples--but were also significant in community-based samples--and when clinical interviews were used. Studies adjusting for body mass index (BMI) had smaller associations, albeit significant. Relationships were inconsistent with respect to age, medication, and sex. Depression was related to CRP and IL-6 among patients with cardiac disease or cancer.
Depression and CRP, IL-1, and IL-6 are positively associated in clinical and community samples and BMI is implicated as a mediating/moderating factor. Continuity in clinic- and community-based samples suggests there is a dose-response relationship between depression and these inflammatory markers, lending strength to the contention that the cardiac (or cancer) risk conferred by depression is not exclusive to patient populations. Available evidence is consistent with three causal pathways: depression to inflammation, inflammation to depression, and bidirectional relationships.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Elevated levels of IL-6 have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Convergent evidence suggests that IL-6 primarily mediates proinflammatory functions via the soluble IL-6 receptor/trans-signaling, and anti-inflammatory functions via a transmembrane receptor (IL-6R). A targeted approach to selectively inhibit IL-6 trans-signaling may offer putative antidepressant effects. Areas covered: This review addresses three primary domains. The first focuses on the biological role of IL-6 within inflammation and its signal transduction pathways. The second addresses the potential contributions of IL-6 to the pathophysiology of MDD, and the mechanisms that may mediate these effects. Finally, the article outlines the therapeutic benefits of incorporating anti-inflammatory properties into the pharmacological treatment of MDD, and proposes inhibition of IL-6 signaling as a viable treatment strategy. Expert opinion: To improve drug development for the treatment of MDD, there is a critical need to identify promising targets. Target identification will require guidance from a strategic framework such as The Research Domain Criteria, and convincing evidence relating known targets to brain function under both physiological and pathological conditions. Although current evidence provides rationale for administering anti-IL-6 treatments in MDD, further studies confirming safety, target affinity and therapeutic benefits are warranted.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 01/2015; · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents.Child Psychiatry and Human Development 02/2015; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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