Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 beta Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Lysosomal Apoptosis in Leukemia
ABSTRACT Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta may modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Our data showed that human monocytic leukemia/lymphoma U937 and acute myeloid leukemia HL-60, but not chronic myeloid leukemia K562, cells were susceptible to apoptosis induced by ER stressor tunicamycin, a protein glycosylation inhibitor. Tunicamycin caused early activation of caspase-2, -3, -4, and -8, followed by apoptosis, whereas caspase-9 was slowly activated. Inhibiting caspase-2 reduced activation of caspase-8 and -3 but had no effect on caspase-4. Tunicamycin induced apoptosis independently of the mitochondrial pathway but caused lysosomal destabilization followed by lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), cathepsin B relocation from lysosomes to the cytosol, and caspase-8 and -3 activation. It is notable that caspase-2 mediated lysosomal destabilization. Inhibiting GSK-3beta comprehensively reduced lysosomal apoptosis after caspase-2 inhibition. Unlike U937 and HL-60 cells, K562 cells showed nonresponsive ER stress and failure of activation of GSK-3beta and caspase-2 in response to tunicamycin. Activating GSK-3beta caused K562 cells to be susceptible to tunicamycin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, we show that GSK-3beta exhibits a mechanism of ER stress-induced lysosomal apoptosis in leukemia involving caspase-2-induced LMP and cathepsin B relocation, which result in caspase-8 and -3 activation.
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ABSTRACT: IL-1β and TNF-α are important proinflammatory cytokines that respond to mutated self-antigens of tissue damage and exogenous pathogens. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein responses are related to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the detailed molecular pathways by which ER stress mediates cytokine gene expression have not been investigated. In this study, we found that ER stress-induced inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE)1α activation differentially regulates proinflammatory cytokine gene expression via activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and X-box binding protein (XBP)-1. Surprisingly, IL-1β gene expression was modulated by IRE1α-mediated GSK-3β activation, but not by XBP-1. However, IRE1α-mediated XBP-1 splicing regulated TNF-α gene expression. SB216763, a GSK-3 inhibitor, selectively inhibited IL-1β gene expression, whereas the IRE1α RNase inhibitor STF083010 suppressed only TNF-α production. Additionally, inhibition of GSK-3β greatly increased IRE1α-dependent XBP-1 splicing. Our results identify an unsuspected differential role of downstream mediators GSK-3β and XBP-1 in ER stress-induced IRE1α activation that regulates cytokine production through signaling cross-talk. These results have important implications in the regulation of inflammatory pathways during ER stress, and they suggest novel therapeutic targets for diseases in which meta-inflammation plays a key role. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.The Journal of Immunology 03/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401399 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a majority of pathophysiological settings, cell death is not accidental - it is controlled by a complex molecular apparatus. Such a system operates like a computer: it receives several inputs that inform on the current state of the cell and the extracellular microenvironment, integrates them and generates an output. Thus, depending on a network of signals generated at specific subcellular sites, cells can respond to stress by attemptinwg to recover homeostasis or by activating molecular cascades that lead to cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we discuss the mechanisms whereby cellular compartments - including the nucleus, mitochondria, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cytoskeleton and cytosol - sense homeostatic perturbations and translate them into a cell-death-initiating signal.Nature Cell Biology 08/2014; 16(8):728-36. DOI:10.1038/ncb3005 · 20.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid, AA), a natural compound isolated from the traditional medicine Amphipterygium adstringens, has been reported to possess antitumor activities. However, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report that AA is a potent inducer of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to apoptosis in hepatoma HepG2 and myeloma U266 cells. Induction of ER stress by AA was supported by a dose- and time-dependent increase in expression of the ER signaling downstream molecules, such as GRP78/BiP, phosphorylated eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP in both HepG2 and U266 cell lines. Blockage of ATF4 expression by siRNA partially inhibited, while knockdown of CHOP expression by siRNA slightly increased AA-induced cell death in these cells. In addition, AA suppressed HepG2 xenograft tumor growth, associated with increased ER stress in vivo. These results suggest that AA induces tumor cell apoptosis associated with ATF4-dependent ER stress.Toxicology Letters 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.05.012 · 3.36 Impact Factor