Systemic presence and tumor-growth promoting effect of ovarian carcinoma released exosomes.
ABSTRACT Exosomes are membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types. Tumor derived-exosomes play a role in immune suppression. We hypothesized that in ovarian carcinoma patients exosomes initially produced at the local abdominal site may become systemic. We examined paired samples of ascites and blood from ovarian carcinoma patients for the presence of exosomes. We also studied the requirements for exosomal uptake by immune cells, the role of phosphatidyl-serine (PS) as uptake signal and the effect of exosome application on tumor growth. We used exosomes from ovarian carcinoma cell lines, malignant ascites and sera from ovarian carcinoma patients isolated by ultracentrifugation. PS-displayed by exosomes was detected by Anexin-V-FITC staining of latex beads adsorbed exosomes. For uptake experiments, labeled exosomes were exposed to cells in the presence or absence of cold Annexin-V as competitor. Uptake was examined by fluorescent microscopy and cytofluorographic analysis. Effects of exosomes on tumor growth were studied using SKOV3ip ovarian carcinoma cells in CD1 nu/nu mice. We found that malignant ascites-derived exosomes cargo tumor progression related proteins such as L1CAM, CD24, ADAM10, and EMMPRIN. We observed that exosomes become systemic via the blood stream. Uptake of ovarian carcinoma exosomes by NK cells was found to require PS at the exosomal surface but the presence of PS was not sufficient. Application of malignant ascites-derived exosomes to tumor bearing mice resulted in augmented tumor growth. Exosomes from the serum of tumor patients could be isolated from only one ml of blood and this analysis could serve for diagnostic purposes. We propose that tumor-derived exosomes could play a role in tumor progression.
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ABSTRACT: Animal cells bud exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) from endosome and plasma membranes. The combination of higher-order oligomerization and plasma membrane binding is a positive budding signal that targets diverse proteins into EMVs and retrovirus particles. Here we describe an inhibitory budding signal (IBS) from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag protein. This IBS was identified in the spacer peptide 2 (SP2) domain of Gag, is activated by C-terminal exposure of SP2, and mediates the severe budding defect of p6-deficient and PTAP-deficient strains of HIV. This IBS also impairs the budding of CD63 and several other viral and nonviral EMV proteins. The IBS does not prevent cargo delivery to the plasma membrane, a major site of EMV and virus budding. However, the IBS does inhibit an interaction between EMV cargo proteins and VPS4B, a component of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Taken together, these results demonstrate that inhibitory signals can block protein and virus budding, raise the possibility that the ESCRT machinery plays a role in EMV biogenesis, and shed new light on the role of the p6 domain and PTAP motif in the biogenesis of HIV particles.Molecular biology of the cell 01/2011; 22(6):817-30. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vesicles released by cells have been described using various names, including exosomes, microparticles, microvesicles and ectosomes. Here we propose to differentiate clearly between ectosomes and exosomes according to their formation and release. Whereas exosomes are formed in multi-vesicular bodies, ectosomes are vesicles budding directly from the cell surface. Depending upon the proteins expressed, exosomes activate or inhibit the immune system. One of the major properties of exosomes released by antigen-presenting cells is to induce antigen-specific T cell activation. Thus, they have been used for tumour immunotherapy. By contrast, the major characteristics of ectosomes released by various cells, including tumour cells, polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes, are the expression of phosphatidylserine and to have anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive activities similarly to apoptotic cells.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 10/2010; 163(1):26-32. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that tumor cells release membranous structures into their extracellular environment, which are termed exosomes, microvesicles or extracellular vesicles depending on specific characteristics, including size, composition and biogenesis pathway. These cell-derived vesicles can exhibit an array of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids derived from the originating tumor. This review focuses of the transcriptome (RNA) of these extracellular vesicles. Based on current data, these vesicular components play essential roles as conveyers of intercellular communication and mediators of many of the pathological conditions associated with cancer development, progression and therapeutic failures. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, signal pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer, chemoresistance, and genetic exchange. These tumor-derived extracellular vesicles not only to represent a central mediator of the tumor microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for tumor biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring.Frontiers in Genetics 01/2013; 4:142.