Use of differential isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to analyze capacitation-associated changes in the phosphorylation status of mouse sperm proteins.
ABSTRACT Mammalian sperm need to reside in the female reproductive tract for a finite period of time before acquiring fertilizing competence. The biochemical changes associated with this process are collectively known as "capacitation". With the use of the mouse as an experimental model, we have previously demonstrated that capacitation is associated with a cAMP-dependent increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, little is known about the identity and function of the protein targets of this phosphorylation cascade. In the present work, we have used differential isotopic labeling coupled with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC)-based phosphopeptide enrichment and analysis on a hybrid linear ion trap/FT-ICR mass spectrometer to measure the changes in protein phosphorylation resulting from the capacitation process. As no kinase activators and/or phosphatase inhibitors were used in the preparation of the sperm samples, phosphorylated residues identified in this study represent in vivo sites of phosphorylation. Also, in contrast to other methods which rely on the incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids at the protein level (e.g., SILAC), the present technique is based on the Fisher esterification of protein digests, allowing for the comparison of phosphorylation status in the absence of protein synthesis. This approach resulted in the identification of 55 unique, in vivo sites of phosphorylation and permitted the relative extent of phosphorylation, as a consequence of capacitation, to be calculated for 42 different phosphopeptides. This work represents the first effort to determine which specific protein phosphorylation sites change their phosphorylation status in vivo as a result of the mammalian capacitation process.
Article: p95, the major phosphotyrosine-containing protein in mouse spermatozoa, is a hexokinase with unique properties.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mouse sperm contain a major phosphotyrosine-containing protein of M(r) 95,000 (nonreducing conditions) which has been implicated as a sperm membrane receptor for the egg zona pellucida glycoprotein, ZP3 (Leyton, L., and Saling, P. (1989) Cell 57, 1123-1130; Leyton, L., LeGuen, P., Bunch, D., and Saling, P. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 89, 11692-11695). This protein was purified and subjected to limited tryptic digestion and subsequent amino acid analysis. Three sequenced peptides revealed 100% amino acid identity to a mouse hepatoma hexokinase (Arora, K. K., Fanciulli, M., and Pederson, P. L. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 6481-6488). The purified protein, which migrated at M(r) 116,000 under reducing conditions (p95/116), reacted with an antiserum to the purified rat brain hexokinase, type 1, and comigrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the purified rat brain enzyme under both nonreducing and reducing conditions. Unlike p95/116, the rat brain enzyme was not a phosphotyrosine-containing protein. The p95/116 protein could be immunoprecipitated with the hexokinase antiserum or an O-phosphotyrosine antibody. Limited tryptic digestion of the purified p95/116 and the rat brain enzyme generated subsets of identical peptides which reacted with the hexokinase antiserum. However, p95/116 also contained phosphotyrosine-containing peptides that were not present in the rat brain hexokinase. When different mouse tissues were probed with the hexokinase antiserum all tissues, with the exception of liver, contained immunoreactive protein. In contrast, only sperm and testis possessed a phosphotyrosine-containing form of hexokinase. These data suggest that the germ cell component of the testis possesses a unique tyrosine-phosphorylated form of hexokinase.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1994; 269(5):3810-7. · 4.77 Impact Factor