The influence of the stable expression of BMP2 in fibrin clots on the remodelling and repair of osteochondral defects.
ABSTRACT Growth factors like BMP2 have been tested for osteochondral repair, but transfer methods used until now were insufficient. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse if stable BMP2 expression after retroviral vector (Bullet) transduction is able to regenerate osteochondral defects in rabbits. Fibrin clots colonized by control or BMP2-transduced chondrocytes were generated for in vitro experiments and implantation into standardized corresponding osteochondral defects (n=32) in the rabbit trochlea. After 4 and 12 weeks repair tissue was analysed by histology (HE, alcian-blue, toluidine-blue), immunohistochemistry (Col1, Col2, aggrecan, aggrecan-link protein), ELISA (BMP2), and quantitative RT-PCR (BMP2, Col1, Col2, Col10, Cbfa1, Sox9). In vitro clots were also analysed by BMP2-ELISA, histology (alcian-blue), quantitative RT-PCR and in addition by electron microscopy. BMP2 increased Col2 expression, proteoglycan production and cell size in vitro. BMP2 transduction by Bullet was efficient and gene expression was stable in vivo over at least 12 weeks. Proteoglycan content and ICRS-score of repair tissue were improved by BMP2 after 4 and 12 weeks and Col2 expression after 4 weeks compared to controls. However, in spite of stable BMP2 expression, a complete repair of osteochondral defects could not be demonstrated. Therefore, BMP2 is not suitable to regenerate osteochondral lesions completely.
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ABSTRACT: To make human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based vectors safer for use in the research and clinical setting, a significant modification to the HIV-1 genome has been the deletion of promoter and enhancer elements from the U3 region of the long terminal repeat (LTR). Vectors containing this deletion are thought to have no LTR-directed transcription and are called self-inactivating (SIN) lentivectors. Using four distinct approaches, we show that SIN lentivectors continue to have promoter activity near the 5' LTR, which is responsible for the production of full-length vector transcripts. To verify that transcripts derived from the LTR in SIN lentivectors are competent for encapsidation and integration, we transduced a lentiviral packaging cell line with a SIN lentivector and then observed the production of viable vector particles containing full-length SIN lentivector genomes. We have also attempted to identify sequences in the SIN lentivector which are responsible for transcriptional activation at the 5' LTR. Using different segments of the vector LTR and leader region in a promoter assay, we have determined that the residual promoter activity is contained entirely within the leader region and that, although this element is downstream of the transcription initiation site, it is capable of initiating transcription from the 5' end of R in the LTR. Mutation of leader region binding sites for the transcriptional activators downstream binding factor 1 (DBF1) and SP1 reduces transcription from the SIN LTR by up to 80%. Knowledge of the potential for mobilization of HIV-1-derived SIN lentivectors will be important for the design of future gene therapy trials with such vectors.Journal of Virology 09/2004; 78(16):8421-36. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a technique used for the treatment of symptomatic osteochondral defects of the knee. A variation of the original periosteum membrane technique is the matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) technique. The MACI membrane consists of a porcine type-I/III collagen bilayer seeded with chondrocytes. Osteochondral defects deeper than 8 to 10 mm usually require bone grafting either before or at the time of transplantation of cartilage. We have used a variation of Peterson's ACI-periosteum sandwich technique using two MACI membranes with bone graft which avoids periosteal harvesting. The procedure is suture-free and requires less operating time and surgical exposure. We performed this MACI-sandwich technique on eight patients, five of whom were assessed at six months and one year post-operatively using the modified Cincinnati knee, the Stanmore functional rating and the visual analogue pain scores. All patients improved within six months with further improvement at one year. The clinical outcome was good or excellent in four after six months and one year. No significant graft-associated complications were observed. Our early results of the MACI-sandwich technique are encouraging although larger medium-term studies are required before there is widespread adoption of the technique.Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume 04/2005; 87(3):330-2. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sports injuries usually involve tissues that display a limited capacity for healing. The treatment of sports injuries has improved over the past 10 to 20 years through sophisticated rehabilitation programs, novel operative techniques, and advances in the field of biomechanical research. Despite this considerable progress, no optimal solution has been found for treatment of various sports-related injuries, including muscle injuries, ligament and tendon ruptures, central meniscal tears, cartilage lesions, and delayed bone fracture healing. New biological approaches focus on the treatment of these injuries with growth factors to stimulate and hasten the healing process. Gene therapy using the transfer of defined genes encoding therapeutic proteins represents a promising way to efficiently deliver suitable growth factors into the injured tissue. Tissue engineering, which may eventually be combined with gene therapy, may potentially result in the creation of tissues or scaffolds for regeneration of tissue defects following trauma. In this article we will discuss why gene therapy and tissue engineering are becoming increasingly important in modern orthopaedic sports medicine practice. We then will review recent research achievements in the area of gene therapy and tissue engineering for sports-related injuries, and highlight the potential clinical applications of this technology in the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal problems following sports-related injuries.The Journal of Gene Medicine 03/2003; 5(2):93-108. · 2.16 Impact Factor