Black patients hospitalized for heart failure have better reported short-term survival than white patients for unknown reasons. We sought to determine if initial severity of illness differed between black and white emergency department (ED) patients hospitalized for heart failure.
We analyzed 1,408 black and 7,260 white randomly selected patients in one state hospitalized from an ED during 2003 and 2004 and with a discharge diagnosis of heart failure. We used three validated clinical prediction rules to estimate severity of illness on admission.
Black patients were younger than white patients (65.8 +/- 14.8 vs 77.4 +/- 11.5 years, P < .01) and were assigned to lower risk classes by all 3 prediction rules more frequently than white patients (P < .01). The odds ratio (95% CI) for classification of black versus white patients into the lowest risk class within the three rules ranged from 1.16 (1.00-1.33) to 4.30 (3.75-4.94). After adjusting for hospital clustering, the odds ratio (95% CI) for black versus white patient hospital death and complications was 0.75 (0.60-0.95) and, for 30-day death, was 0.34 (0.27-0.48).
Black ED patients hospitalized with heart failure are younger, less severely ill on admission and less likely to experience short-term fatal and nonfatal outcomes than white patients. Our findings suggest a varying opportunity between black and white patients when considering alternative initial treatment strategies and sites of care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) disproportionately affects black compared to white Americans, and overall mortality from HF is greater among blacks. Paradoxically, mortality rates after a hospitalization for HF are lower in black than in white patients. These racial differences might reflect hospital, physician, and patient factors and could have implications for comparative hospital profiles. We identified published studies reporting the posthospitalization mortality for black and white patients with a discharge diagnosis of HF and conducted random-effects meta-analyses with the outcome of all-cause mortality. We included 29 cohorts of hospitalized black and white patients with HF. The unadjusted mean mortality rate after HF hospitalization for black and white patients, respectively, was 6% and 9% for in-hospital, 6% and 10% for 30-day, 10% and 15% for 60- to 180-day, 28% and 34% for 1-year, and 41% and 47% for >1-year follow-up, respectively. The unadjusted combined odds ratios for mortality in black versus white patients ranged from 0.48 for in-hospital (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 0.51) to 0.77 after >1 year follow-up (95% CI 0.75 to 0.79). In meta-analyses using adjusted data, the combined odds ratio was 0.68 for short-term mortality (95% CI 0.63 to 0.74), and the combined hazard ratio was 0.84 for long-term mortality (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91). In conclusion, mortality after hospitalization for HF was 32% lower during short-term follow-up and 16% lower during long-term follow-up for black than for white patients. The mortality differences imply unmeasured differences by race in clinical severity of illness at hospital admission and might lead to biased hospital mortality profiles.
The American journal of cardiology 03/2010; 105(5):694-700. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.10.051 · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been well documented that screening, prevention, and treatment disparities in cardiovascular care exist. Most studies have focused on the outpatient setting. The purpose of the present analysis was to assess if a disparity of care exists in the care of emergency department (ED) patients with acute heart failure in a secondary analysis of the Heart Failure and Audicor Technology for Rapid Diagnosis and Initial Treatment (HEARD-IT) multinational study.
Only patients with an adjudicated diagnosis of acute heart failure were included in this analysis. Racial groups included in this analysis were limited to white and African American or black patients, due to their predominance in the cohort. Logistic regression including clinically relevant demographics, past medical history, exam, diagnostic tests, and adjudicated diagnosis of acute heart failure as covariates was performed to assess the association of race with treatment with a diuretic or nitroglycerin and 30-day death or readmission.
Of the cohort, 418 of 1,076 (38.8%) were included in the analysis. Median age was 69 years (interquartile range [IQR]=55-79 years), 49% were white, and 51% were African American or black. There was no difference in the correct admitting diagnosis in the two groups (p=0.83). Multivariate adjustment revealed that African American or black race was not associated with treatment with diuretics (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.55 to 1.82) or nitrates (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=0.76 to 2.13) in the ED. In a separate regression analysis there was no association with African American or black race with 30-day adverse events (adjusted OR=1.22, 95% CI=0.68 to 2.16).
This secondary analysis of HEARD-IT data did not identify racial disparities in the treatment of adults with acute heart failure in the ED.
Academic Emergency Medicine 01/2011; 18(1):15-21. DOI:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00950.x · 2.01 Impact Factor
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