Positive Screening on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 4.02). 04/2009; 154(4):535-540.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.10.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To test the hypothesis that children born preterm are more likely to screen positive on the M-CHAT for an autism spectrum disorder.
We compared the M-CHAT positive rate of those with cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, and vision and hearing impairments to those without such deficits.
Relative to children who could walk, the odds for screening positive on the M-CHAT were increased 23-fold for those unable to sit or stand independently and more than 7-fold for those requiring assistance to walk. Compared with children without a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, those with quadriparesis were 13 times more likely to screen positive, and those with hemiparesis were 4 times more likely to screen positive. Children with major vision or hearing impairments were 8 times more likely to screen positive than those without such impairments. Relative to those with a Mental Development Index (MDI) of >70, the odds for screening positive were increased 13-fold for those with an MDI of <55 and more than 4-fold for those with an MDI of 55 to 69.
Major motor, cognitive, visual, and hearing impairments appear to account for more than half of the positive M-CHAT screens in extremely low gestational age newborns. Even after those with such impairments were eliminated, 10% of children--nearly double the expected rate--screened positive.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: raidai 6 ir 12 mënesiø koreguotame amþiuje bei nustatyti psichomotorinio vystymosi atsilikimo rizikà ðiais kûdikystës laikotarpiais. Tyrimo metodai. 2007 -2009 m. Vilniaus m. universitetinëje ir Vilniaus universiteto vaikø ligoninëse buvo iðtirti 144 24-34 savaitae gimae naujagimiai, vëliau kûdikiai. Naujagimiø virkð-telës kraujo imunologinis tyrimas atliktas VU Imunologijos institute. Virkðtelës kraujo IL-6 kiekiai nustatyti ELISA metodu. 6 ir 12 mënesiø koreguoto amþiaus kûdikiø psichomotorinës rai-dos vertinimas atliktas Vilniaus universiteto vaikø ligoninëje pagal Miuncheno funkcinës raidos diagnostikos metodikà. Rezultatai. 6 mënesiø KA kûdikiø, kuriø virkðtelës kraujyje IL-6 buvo ≥11 pg/ml (VUAS gr.), judesiø ir socialiniø funkciniø srièiø vystymasis atsiliko nuo kontrolinës grupës (p<0,05), taèiau vidutinio raidos amþiaus skirtumas reikðmingai nesiskyrë nuo kitø (p=0,093). 12 mënesiø KA VUAS gr. kûdikiø judëjimo, socialiniø, kalbos supratimo funkcijø vystymasis reikðmingai atsiliko nuo kontrolinës (p<0,01), o vidutinis raidos amþiaus skirtumas tarp lyginamøjø grupiø tapo reikðmin-gas (p<0,01). Ávertinus kûdikiø gestacijos amþiø, nustatyta reliatyvi rizika, prognozuojant 12 mën. koreguoto amþiaus kûdikiø bendrai psichomotori-nës raidos atsilikimà ≥2 mën. (RR 2,7; 95 proc. PI 1,6-4,7; p<0,001), prognozuojant judesiø raidos atsilikimà ≥2 mën. (RR 3,8; 95 proc. PI 2,0-7,2; p<0,001), prognozuojant psichosocialinës raidos atsilikimà ≥2 mën. (RR 2,8; 95 proc. PI 1,5-5,0; p<0,01). Iðvados. 1) 12 mën. koreguoto amþiaus VUAS pa-þeistø kûdikiø, kurie gimë 24-34 nëðtumo savaitae, psichomotorinës raidos vidutinis amþius yra reikð-mingai maþesnis nei kitø prieð laikà gimusiø kûdi-kiø. 6 mën. koreguotame amþiuje VUAS paþeistø kûdikiø psichomotorinës raidos vidutinis amþius nesiskiria nuo kitø; 2) naujagimiams, kuriems galima átarti VUAS, tai yra virkðtelës kraujo IL-6 ≥11 pg/ml, 12 mën. KA didëja psichomotorinio
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of positive screens using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) questionnaire and follow-up interview in late and moderately preterm (LMPT; 32-36 weeks) infants and term-born controls. Population-based prospective cohort study of 1130 LMPT and 1255 term-born infants. Parents completed the M-CHAT questionnaire at 2-years corrected age. Parents of infants with positive questionnaire screens were followed up with a telephone interview to clarify failed items. The M-CHAT questionnaire was re-scored, and infants were classified as true or false positives. Neurosensory, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes were assessed using parent report. Parents of 634 (57%) LMPT and 761 (62%) term-born infants completed the M-CHAT questionnaire. LMPT infants had significantly higher risk of a positive questionnaire screen compared with controls (14.5% vs 9.2%; relative risk [RR] 1.58; 95% CI 1.18, 2.11). After follow-up, significantly more LMPT infants than controls had a true positive screen (2.4% vs 0.5%; RR 4.52; 1.51, 13.56). This remained significant after excluding infants with neurosensory impairments (2.0% vs 0.5%; RR 3.67; 1.19, 11.3). LMPT infants are at significantly increased risk for positive autistic screen. An M-CHAT follow-up interview is essential as screening for autism spectrum disorders is especially confounded in preterm populations. Infants with false positive screens are at risk for cognitive and behavioral problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pediatrics 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.053 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preterm children seem to be at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Parents of 157 children with birth weights less than 1,500 g (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls) completed screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently assessed by clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Fifty-six children (35.7%) screened positive on at least one of the parental screening questionnaires. Of the 56 children who tested positive, 33 participated in the detailed clinical follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 13 of the 33 children. The ASD prevalence was 9.7% of the sample. Analysis of children with and without an ASD diagnosis found significant differences relative to gestational age (26.9 weeks vs 28.3 weeks, P=0.033) and length of the stay in hospital (89.5 days vs 75.4 days, P=0.042). The screening tool with the most positive results was CSBS-DP-ITC (42 positive screens [PS]), followed by M-CHAT (28 PS), and ITSP (22 PS). Differences in the frequency of PS among the tests were significant (P=0.008). CSBS-DP-ITC had the highest sensitivity (0.846), followed by M-CHAT (0.692) and ITSP (0.462). Our results indicate a higher prevalence of autism in children with birth weights <1,500 g at 2 years of age compared to the general population prevalence. The ASD diagnosis was associated with shorter gestation times and longer hospital stays. Our findings support the simultaneous use of more than one screening tests in order to increase screening sensitivity.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:2201-2208. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S72921 · 2.15 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014