Cell-based gene therapy modifies matrix remodeling after a myocardial infarction in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice.
ABSTRACT Cell-based gene therapy can enhance the effects of cell transplantation by temporally and spatially regulating the release of the gene product. The purpose of this study was to evaluate transient matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by implanting cells genetically modified to overexpress a natural tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3) into the hearts of mutant (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient) mice that exhibit an exaggerated response to myocardial infarction. Following a myocardial infarction, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice undergo accelerated cardiac dilatation and matrix disruption due to uninhibited matrix metalloproteinase activity. This preliminary proof of concept study assessed the potential for cell-based gene therapy to reduce matrix remodeling in the remote myocardium and facilitate functional recovery.
Anesthetized tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice were subjected to coronary ligation followed by intramyocardial injection of vector-transfected bone marrow stromal cells, bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3, or medium. Functional, morphologic, histologic, and biochemical studies were performed 0, 3, 7, and 28 days later.
Bone marrow stromal cells and bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 significantly decreased scar expansion and ventricular dilatation 28 days after coronary ligation and increased regional capillary density to day 7. Only bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 reduced early matrix metalloproteinase activities and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels relative to medium injection. Bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 were also more effective than bone marrow stromal cells in preventing progressive cardiac dysfunction, preserving remote myocardial collagen content and structure, and reducing border zone apoptosis for at least 28 days after implantation.
Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 overexpression enhanced the effects of bone marrow stromal cells transplanted early after a myocardial infarction in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice by contributing regulated matrix metalloproteinase inhibition to preserve matrix collagen and improve functional recovery.
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ABSTRACT: Thrombin has been reported to play a pivotal role in the initiation of angiogenesis by indirectly regulating and organizing a network of angiogenic molecules. On the basis of these reports, we investigated the angiogenic action of thrombin in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction. A rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary branch. Subjects were then divided into 2 groups and treated with intramyocardial administration of thrombin (2500 IU; n = 13) or an equal volume of normal saline (n = 13). Four weeks later, animals were euthanized and histopathologic analysis, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial markers CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and electron microscopy examination were performed on excised hearts. Electrocardiography, cardiac enzymes, and assessment of cardiac function by measuring left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ejection fraction were recorded before and after myocardial infarction, and both left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ejection fraction were further measured on the day of euthanasia (n = 5-8 in each case). Increased levels of troponin, ST elevation, and histopathologically confirmed myocardial infarction were observed in all animals. A significant increase of microvessel density at the infarct border zone, as evaluated by CD31 immunohistochemistry, was observed in the thrombin-treated group compared with the control group (30.3 ± 12.8 vs 12.6 ± 4.8, P = .0065). A significantly higher number of vascular endothelial growth factor-A-positive vessels at the infarct border zone was observed in the thrombin-treated animals compared with the control group (21.8 ± 8.9 vs 5.6 ± 4.4; P = .0009). The thrombin-treated animals showed a statistically significant reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure values (6.9 ± 1.8 mm Hg vs 12.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = .0002) and significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (59.8% ± 3.1% vs 42.2% ± 6.14%, P = .002) on the day of euthanasia compared with the post-infarct day, reflecting significantly improved cardiac function compared with control subjects that showed no significant change. Intramyocardial administration of thrombin seems to promote angiogenesis and improve cardiac function of the ischemic myocardium, which may provide a new therapeutic approach in patients with myocardial ischemia.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 07/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction is a leading cause for morbidity and mortality in the modern society. Rhesus monkeys are excellent animal models for experimental and translational studies of cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, some detailed characterizations of cardiovascular disease, such as myocardial infarction, in Rhesus monkeys have not been available. The present study was undertaken to examine the progressive electrocardiographic changes in Rhesus monkeys after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation. Male Rhesus monkeys, aged 2-3 years and weighed 4.5-6.0 kg, were subjected to LAD ligation along with sham-operated controls. At 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after the LAD ligation, ECG recording was performed to detect the progressive changes in ECG. In addition, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography were applied to detect the myocardial infarction induced by LAD ligation, and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment to measure the morphological changes. The results showed that QRS and ST-T changed significantly within 1 month after LAD ligation, but recovered to normal at the end of the experiment. The most significant change was a progressive QTc prolongation, which occurred corresponding to the development of myocardial infarction. Both cardiac MRI and echocardiography detected the myocardial infarction that was confirmed by the histopathological examination. This detailed characterization of ECG changes along with the development of myocardial infarction induced by LAD ligation thus demonstrated that the Rhesus monkey model of ischemic myocardial infarction would be an excellent surrogate for human myocardial infarction. This model would also provide an excellent tool for drug discovery and development for cardiac disease.Cardiovascular toxicology 07/2011; 11(4):365-72. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction begins with massive extracellular matrix deposition and resultant fibrosis. This loss of functional tissue and stiffening of myocardial elastic and contractile elements starts the vicious cycle of mechanical inefficiency, adverse remodeling, and eventual heart failure. We hypothesized that stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) therapy to microrevascularize ischemic myocardium would rescue salvageable peri-infarct tissue and subsequently improve myocardial elasticity. Immediately after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, mice were randomly assigned to receive peri-infarct injection of either saline solution or SDF-1α. After 6 weeks, animals were killed and samples were taken from the peri-infarct border zone and the infarct scar, as well as from the left ventricle of noninfarcted control mice. Determination of tissues' elastic moduli was carried out by mechanical testing in an atomic force microscope. SDF-1α-treated peri-infarct tissue most closely approximated the elasticity of normal ventricle and was significantly more elastic than saline-treated peri-infarct myocardium (109 ± 22.9 kPa vs 295 ± 42.3 kPa; P < .0001). Myocardial scar, the strength of which depends on matrix deposition from vasculature at the peri-infarct edge, was stiffer in SDF-1α-treated animals than in controls (804 ± 102.2 kPa vs 144 ± 27.5 kPa; P < .0001). Direct quantification of myocardial elastic properties demonstrates the ability of SDF-1α to re-engineer evolving myocardial infarct and peri-infarct tissues. By increasing elasticity of the ischemic and dysfunctional peri-infarct border zone and bolstering the weak, aneurysm-prone scar, SDF-1α therapy may confer a mechanical advantage to resist adverse remodeling after infarction.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 01/2012; 143(4):962-6. · 3.41 Impact Factor