Cell-based gene therapy modifies matrix remodeling after a myocardial infarction in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice.
ABSTRACT Cell-based gene therapy can enhance the effects of cell transplantation by temporally and spatially regulating the release of the gene product. The purpose of this study was to evaluate transient matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by implanting cells genetically modified to overexpress a natural tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3) into the hearts of mutant (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient) mice that exhibit an exaggerated response to myocardial infarction. Following a myocardial infarction, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice undergo accelerated cardiac dilatation and matrix disruption due to uninhibited matrix metalloproteinase activity. This preliminary proof of concept study assessed the potential for cell-based gene therapy to reduce matrix remodeling in the remote myocardium and facilitate functional recovery.
Anesthetized tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice were subjected to coronary ligation followed by intramyocardial injection of vector-transfected bone marrow stromal cells, bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3, or medium. Functional, morphologic, histologic, and biochemical studies were performed 0, 3, 7, and 28 days later.
Bone marrow stromal cells and bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 significantly decreased scar expansion and ventricular dilatation 28 days after coronary ligation and increased regional capillary density to day 7. Only bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 reduced early matrix metalloproteinase activities and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels relative to medium injection. Bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 were also more effective than bone marrow stromal cells in preventing progressive cardiac dysfunction, preserving remote myocardial collagen content and structure, and reducing border zone apoptosis for at least 28 days after implantation.
Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 overexpression enhanced the effects of bone marrow stromal cells transplanted early after a myocardial infarction in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice by contributing regulated matrix metalloproteinase inhibition to preserve matrix collagen and improve functional recovery.
- SourceAvailable from: Stefano Menini[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) is a stromal protein that inhibits the activity of proteases and receptors. TIMP3 is downregulated in metabolic and inflammatory disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, particularly in regions enriched with monocyte/macrophage cells. To investigate the role of TIMP3 in atherosclerosis, we generated a new mouse model in which Timp3 was overexpressed in the atherosclerotic plaque via a macrophage-specific promoter (MacT3). We elucidated any potential antiatherosclerotic effects of TIMP3, including regulation of monocyte/macrophage recruitment within atherosclerotic plaques, in MacT3 mice crossbred with low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice. MacT3/LDLR(-/-) mice had an improvement of atherosclerosis and metabolic parameters compared with LDLR(-/-). En face aorta and aortic root examination of MacT3/LDLR(-/-) mice revealed smaller atherosclerotic plaques with features of stability, such as increased collagen content and decreased necrotic core formation. Atherosclerotic plaques in MacT3/LDLR(-/-) mice contained fewer T cells and macrophages. Furthermore, TIMP3 overexpression in macrophages resulted in reduced oxidative stress signals, as evidenced by lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitration in atheromas. Our study confirmed that macrophage-specific overexpression of TIMP3 decreases the inflammatory content and the amplitude of atherosclerotic plaques in mice.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 01/2012; 32(1):74-81. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After a myocardial infarction, thinning and expansion of the fibrotic scar contribute to progressive heart failure. The loss of elastin is a major contributor to adverse extracellular matrix remodelling of the infarcted heart, and restoration of the elastic properties of the infarct region can prevent ventricular dysfunction. We implanted cells genetically modified to overexpress elastin to re-establish the elastic properties of the infarcted myocardium and prevent cardiac failure. A full-length human elastin cDNA was cloned, subcloned into an adenoviral vector and then transduced into rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In vitro studies showed that BMSCs expressed the elastin protein, which was deposited into the extracellular matrix. Transduced BMSCs were injected into the infarcted myocardium of adult rats. Control groups received either BMSCs transduced with the green fluorescent protein gene or medium alone. Elastin deposition in the infarcted myocardium was associated with preservation of myocardial tissue structural integrity (by birefringence of polarized light; P < 0.05 versus controls). As a result, infarct scar thickness and diastolic compliance were maintained and infarct expansion was prevented (P < 0.05 versus controls). Over a 9-week period, rats implanted with BMSCs demonstrated better cardiac function than medium controls; however, rats receiving BMSCs overexpressing elastin showed the greatest functional improvement (P < 0.01). Overexpression of elastin in the infarcted heart preserved the elastic structure of the extracellular matrix, which, in turn, preserved diastolic function, prevented ventricular dilation and preserved cardiac function. This cell-based gene therapy provides a new approach to cardiac regeneration.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 03/2012; 16(10):2429-39. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for ischemic heart disease, but the regenerative capacity of these cells decreases with age. In this study, we genetically engineered old human MSCs (O-hMSCs) with tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and evaluated the effects on the efficacy of cell-based gene therapy in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model. Cultured O-hMSCs were transfected with TIMP3 (O-TIMP3) or VEGF (O-VEGF) and compared with young hMSCs (Y-hMSCs) and non-transfected O-hMSCs for growth, clonogenic capacity, and differentiation potential. In vivo, rats were subjected to left coronary artery ligation with subsequent injection of Y-hMSCs, O-hMSCs, O-TIMP3, O-VEGF, or medium. Echocardiography was performed prior to and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after MI. Myocardial levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, TIMP3, and VEGF were assessed at 1 week. Hemodynamics, morphology, and histology were measured at 4 weeks. In vitro, genetically modified O-hMSCs showed no changes in growth, colony formation, or multi-differentiation capacity. In vivo, transplantation with O-TIMP3, O-VEGF, or Y-hMSCs increased capillary density, preserved cardiac function, and reduced infarct size compared to O-hMSCs and medium control. O-TIMP3 and O-VEGF transplantation enhanced TIMP3 and VEGF expression, respectively, in the treated animals. O-hMSCs genetically modified with TIMP3 or VEGF can increase angiogenesis, prevent adverse matrix remodeling, and restore cardiac function to a degree similar to Y-hMSCs. This gene-modified cell therapy strategy may be a promising clinical treatment to rejuvenate stem cells in elderly patients.Rejuvenation Research 09/2012; 15(5):495-506. · 2.92 Impact Factor