Cell-based gene therapy modifies matrix remodeling after a myocardial infarction in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice.
ABSTRACT Cell-based gene therapy can enhance the effects of cell transplantation by temporally and spatially regulating the release of the gene product. The purpose of this study was to evaluate transient matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by implanting cells genetically modified to overexpress a natural tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3) into the hearts of mutant (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient) mice that exhibit an exaggerated response to myocardial infarction. Following a myocardial infarction, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice undergo accelerated cardiac dilatation and matrix disruption due to uninhibited matrix metalloproteinase activity. This preliminary proof of concept study assessed the potential for cell-based gene therapy to reduce matrix remodeling in the remote myocardium and facilitate functional recovery.
Anesthetized tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice were subjected to coronary ligation followed by intramyocardial injection of vector-transfected bone marrow stromal cells, bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3, or medium. Functional, morphologic, histologic, and biochemical studies were performed 0, 3, 7, and 28 days later.
Bone marrow stromal cells and bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 significantly decreased scar expansion and ventricular dilatation 28 days after coronary ligation and increased regional capillary density to day 7. Only bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 reduced early matrix metalloproteinase activities and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels relative to medium injection. Bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 were also more effective than bone marrow stromal cells in preventing progressive cardiac dysfunction, preserving remote myocardial collagen content and structure, and reducing border zone apoptosis for at least 28 days after implantation.
Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 overexpression enhanced the effects of bone marrow stromal cells transplanted early after a myocardial infarction in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3-deficient mice by contributing regulated matrix metalloproteinase inhibition to preserve matrix collagen and improve functional recovery.
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ABSTRACT: Thrombin has been reported to play a pivotal role in the initiation of angiogenesis by indirectly regulating and organizing a network of angiogenic molecules. On the basis of these reports, we investigated the angiogenic action of thrombin in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction. A rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary branch. Subjects were then divided into 2 groups and treated with intramyocardial administration of thrombin (2500 IU; n = 13) or an equal volume of normal saline (n = 13). Four weeks later, animals were euthanized and histopathologic analysis, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial markers CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and electron microscopy examination were performed on excised hearts. Electrocardiography, cardiac enzymes, and assessment of cardiac function by measuring left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ejection fraction were recorded before and after myocardial infarction, and both left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ejection fraction were further measured on the day of euthanasia (n = 5-8 in each case). Increased levels of troponin, ST elevation, and histopathologically confirmed myocardial infarction were observed in all animals. A significant increase of microvessel density at the infarct border zone, as evaluated by CD31 immunohistochemistry, was observed in the thrombin-treated group compared with the control group (30.3 ± 12.8 vs 12.6 ± 4.8, P = .0065). A significantly higher number of vascular endothelial growth factor-A-positive vessels at the infarct border zone was observed in the thrombin-treated animals compared with the control group (21.8 ± 8.9 vs 5.6 ± 4.4; P = .0009). The thrombin-treated animals showed a statistically significant reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure values (6.9 ± 1.8 mm Hg vs 12.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = .0002) and significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (59.8% ± 3.1% vs 42.2% ± 6.14%, P = .002) on the day of euthanasia compared with the post-infarct day, reflecting significantly improved cardiac function compared with control subjects that showed no significant change. Intramyocardial administration of thrombin seems to promote angiogenesis and improve cardiac function of the ischemic myocardium, which may provide a new therapeutic approach in patients with myocardial ischemia.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 07/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Roles of cardiac fibroblasts (CF) in the regulation of myocardial structure and function have been emphasized in the last decade. Their implications in pathophysiological aspects of chronic heart diseases such as myocardial remodelling and fibrosis is now well established; however their contribution to the acute phase of ischemia reperfusion injury still remains elusive. We hypothesized that CF may contribute to cardiomyocytes (CM) protection against ischemia reperfusion injuries. Experiments performed on isolated neonatal rat CF and CM demonstrated that the presence of CF in co-cultures increases CM viability (58±2% versus 30±2% in control) against hypoxia reoxygenation injury, in a paracrine manner. It was confirmed by a similar effect of hypoxic CF secretome alone on CM viability (51±9% versus 31±4% in untreated cells). These findings were corroborated by in vivo experiments in a mice model of myocardial infarction in which a 25% infarct size reduction was observed in CF secretome treated mice compared to control. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) alone, abundantly detected in CF secretome, was able to decrease CM cell death (35%) and experiments with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways provided more evidence that this paracrine protection is partly mediated by these signalling pathways. In vivo experiments strengthened that TIMP-1 alone was able to decrease infarct size (37%) and were validated by depletion experiments demonstrating that CF secretome cardioprotection was abolished by TIMP-1 depletion. Our data demonstrated for the first time that CF participate in cardioprotection during the acute phase of ischemia reperfusion via a paracrine pathway involving TIMP-1.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 01/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is a critical aspect of cardiac remodelling following myocardial infarction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are physiological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the ECM proteins. TIMP-3 is highly expressed in the heart and is markedly downregulated in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Cell-based gene therapy can enhance the effects of cell transplantation by temporally and spatially regulating the release of the gene product. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TIMP-3 gene-transfected vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in modifying heart structure and function in rats when transplanted 3 days after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Anesthetised rats were subjected to coronary artery ligation followed 3 days later by thoracotomy and transplantation of TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs, untransfected VSMCs or medium injected directly into the ischemic myocardium. We assessed left ventricular structure and function by echocardiography and morphometry, and measured the levels of myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), TIMP-3 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 4 weeks post-myocardial infarction. Results: Transplantation of TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs and untransfected VSMCs significantly decreased scar expansion and ventricular dilatation 25 days post-transplantation (4 weeks after MI). MMPs and TNF-α levels were reduced in the transplantation groups when compared to the group that was given an injection of medium only. Transplantation of TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs was more effective in preventing progressive cardiac dysfunction, ventricular dilatation and in reducing MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α levels when compared to the transplantation of untransfected VSMCs. TIMP-3 gene transfection was associated with attenuated left ventricular dilation and recovery of systolic function after MI compared with control. TIMP-3 transfection enhanced the effects of transplanted VSMCs in rats by inhibiting matrix degradation and inflammatory cytokine expression, leading to improved myocardial remodelling.Transplant Immunology 04/2014; · 1.52 Impact Factor