Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 6:7

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, 207 Cooke Hall, 1900 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. .
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (Impact Factor: 4.11). 01/2009; 6(1):7. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-7
Source: PubMed


Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later.
Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort) and 1366 high school students (older cohort) who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998-1999) and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 +/- 0.6 and 20.5 +/- 0.8 years, respectively). Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake.
Respondents were categorized as limited television users (<2 hours/daily), moderately high television viewers (2-5 hours/daily), and heavy television viewers (>/=5 hours/daily). Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television) five years later.
Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating habits in young adulthood.

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Available from: Daheia J Barr-Anderson, Apr 03, 2014
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    • "A strong correlation has been observed between children and television advertisements, which are full of fascination and excitement [5] [6]. The ways television media contributes to poor diet and physical inactivity include: time spent consuming media and its impact on reduced energy expenditure, eating during time spent watching television and the prevalence and impact of food advertisements [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze food advertisements comparatively between children television channels and mainstream channels in India. Design: Four leading TV channels were recorded between 07.00-09.00 hrs and 17.00-19.00 hrs telecasts of children's channels and 17.00-21.00 hrs airtimes of mainstream channels, amounting to a total of 112 hours of telecast for analysis for a period of one week, during the vacation. The data were viewed by one of the researchers and coded according to food categories, food products, health claims and presentation. Results: A total of 1602 food advertisements were appeared and the duration of these ads was calculated as 42,120 seconds. Advertisements about chocolates and sweet products were telecasted highest number of times followed by the adverts on Health/ Energy drinks and Grain-based products. Advertisement of chocolates/sweets, Biscuits/cookies and potato chips were mostly telecasted in the children's channel compared to mainstream, which clearly indicates that the manufacturers of these products had targeted child audience. Contrary to this, 63% of adverts on health/ energy drinks were seen in the mainstream channels, which audience consist mostly adults including housewives or parents. As the cost of the health drinks were high compared to the chocolates and the decision to purchase these products lies only with parents, health/ energy drinks were mostly advertised in the mainstream channel. All most all the adverts on health/ energy drinks boosted these as inevitable for the growth of children which tempts the parents. The same was the case with advertisement on grain/fruit-based products. 74% of this product advertisement was seen in the mainstream channels. All the advertisement of potato crisps during the sample week was appeared only in the children's channel and all the adverts on tea/coffee was seen only on mainstream channels which can be perceived as food advertisers' strategies was based on symbolical division of food habits between children and adults. Conclusions: The majority of food advertisements shown in both children and mainstream channels do not foster good health despite the health claims made. The findings of the present study suggest that statutory regulation is needed to reduce the advertising of unhealthy food-related products, especially to children. At the same time, efforts could be made to encourage more advertising of healthy foods.
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    • "To the extent that such multi-tasking induces cognitive load, the research here suggests that it may exacerbate the effects of advertising. In addition, evidence suggests that television viewing in childhood and adolescence has sustained effects into adulthood [13,41]. If low-SES children are more likely to be exposed to television advertising for obesigenic foods, the longevity of the effect may explain some of the results here. "
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    ABSTRACT: Advertising has been implicated in the declining quality of the American diet, but much of the research has been conducted with children rather than adults. This study tested the effects of televised food advertising on adult food choice. Participants (N = 351) were randomized into one of 4 experimental conditions: exposure to food advertising vs. exposure to non-food advertising, and within each of these groups, exposure to a task that was either cognitively demanding or not cognitively demanding. The number of unhealthy snacks chosen was subsequently measured, along with total calories of the snacks chosen. Those exposed to food advertising chose 28% more unhealthy snacks than those exposed to non-food-advertising (95% CI: 7% - 53%), with a total caloric value that was 65 kcal higher (95% CI: 10-121). The effect of advertising was not significant among those assigned to the low-cognitive-load group, but was large and significant among those assigned to the high-cognitive-load group: 43% more unhealthy snacks (95% CI: 11% - 85%) and 94 more total calories (95% CI: 19-169). Televised food advertising has strong effects on individual food choice, and these effects are magnified when individuals are cognitively occupied by other tasks.
    BMC Public Health 04/2014; 14(1):342. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-342 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Many studies also conclude that frequent television spectators tend to consume less fruits and vegetables (Barr-Anderson et al., 2009), but attendance to nongovernmental projects that provide healthy foods appeared to be positively influencing the students' eating habits. Students reported consuming snacks frequently, not conditioning the habit to home availability or socioeconomic condition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to investigate television viewing habits of children from low-income families, their consumption of fruits, vegetables and snacks, as well as their spending habits. Design/methodology/approach– 11 focus groups were conducted with 54 public school students aged seven to ten years, divided by sex and age. Transcription of the discussions was processed by content analysis. Family income was indirectly assessed through classification of parents’ occupations. Findings– The habit of watching television was very present in the students’ routines, as was eating in front of the television set. Eating fruits and vegetables was a habit, but frequent consumption of snack foods was also reported. Students had money of their own to spend independently and did it mostly on snacks. Parental interference over their habits was not perceived by the students. Television watching was a regular activity not only for the children, but also for their families. Even though research design could not establish a causal relationship, consumption and acquisition of unhealthy food items was routine, as well as watching television. Research limitations/implications– Results are of local nature and findings may differ from those of other regions or countries. Also, students were conveniently selected, and as volunteers they may have been more likely to have an interest in matters related to nutrition, or could have misreported their eating behaviours to be more socially desirable than they actually were. Originality/value– Qualitative investigation regarding television viewing habits, food choices and purchases of Brazilian low-income children. KeywordsConsumer behaviour, Children, T
    Nutrition & Food Science 10/2013; 43(6):526-534. DOI:10.1108/NFS-08-2011-0083
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