Depressive relapse during lithium treatment associated with increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone: results from two placebo-controlled bipolar I maintenance studies
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
(Impact Factor: 5.61).
02/2009; 120(1):10-3. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01343.x
To assess the relationship between depressive relapse and change in thyroid function in an exploratory post hoc analysis from a controlled maintenance evaluation of bipolar I disorder.
Mean thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and outcome data were pooled from two 18-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, maintenance studies of lamotrigine and lithium monotherapy. A post hoc analysis of 109 subjects (n = 55 lamotrigine, n = 32 lithium, n = 22 placebo) with serum TSH values at screening and either week 52 (+/-14 days) or study drop-out was conducted.
Lithium-treated subjects who required an intervention for a depressive episode had a significantly higher adjusted mean TSH level (4.4 microIU/ml) compared with lithium-treated subjects who did not require intervention for a depressive episode (2.4 microIU/ml).
Lithium-related changes in thyroid function are clinically relevant and should be carefully monitored in the maintenance phase of bipolar disorder to maximize mood stability and minimize the risk of subsyndromal or syndromal depressive relapse.
Figures in this publication
Available from: Subho Chakrabarti
- "Additionally, Frye et al.  reported that a lower mean serum level of free T4 was associated with more affective episodes and greater severity of depression during the first year of lithium-treatment. More recently, a retrospective analysis has shown that lithium-treated subjects who required an intervention for a depressive episode had significantly increased mean TSH levels, in comparison to lithium-treated subjects who did not require any intervention for depression . "
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ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.
Journal of Thyroid Research 07/2011; 2011(3):306367. DOI:10.4061/2011/306367
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ABSTRACT: The relationship of bipolar disorder (BD) and altered thyroid function is increasingly recognized. Recently, a behavioral phenotype of co-occurring deviance on the Anxious/Depressed (A/D), Attention Problems (AP), and Aggressive Behavior (AB) syndrome scales has been identified as the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), which itself has been linked to BD. This study tested for differences in thyroid function within a sample of n=114 psychiatric children and adolescents with and without the CBCL-DP.
A CBCL-DP score was generated based on the composite of the crucial CBCL syndrome scales (A/D, AP, AB). Participants with a CBCL-DP score >or=2.5 SDs above average constituted the CBCL-DP subgroup (n=53). Those with CBCL-DP scores of 1 SD or less above average percentile were regarded as controls (n=61). Groups were compared regarding serum levels of TSH, fT3 and fT4.
In participants showing the CBCL-DP, basal serum TSH was elevated compared to controls. More CBCL-DP subjects than controls showed subclinical hypothyroidism. No differences were observed for serum fT3 and fT4 levels.
This is the first study to demonstrate associations between CBCL-DP and subclinical hypothyroidism. Future research should address the long-term outcome of CBCL-DP with coexisting hypothyroidism, the potential benefits of supplementation with thyroid hormone, and the association between severe dysregulation and the bipolar spectrum.
Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2009; 121(1-2):184-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.009 · 3.38 Impact Factor
Available from: Charles L Bowden
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ABSTRACT: Depressive phases are the most prevalent component of bipolar disorders, even with modern treatment. Bipolar depressive morbidity is often misdiagnosed and is limited in response to available treatments. These conditions are especially debilitating and are associated with psychiatric comorbidity, substance abuse, functional disability, and increased mortality owing to early suicide and accidents, and later medical illnesses. There is growing awareness that bipolar depression is one of the greatest challenges in modern psychiatry. It is essential to differentiate various forms of depression, dysthymia, and dysphoric mixed states of bipolar disorders from the clinical features of more common, unipolar major depressive disorders. In bipolar depression, antidepressant responses often are unsatisfactory, and these agents probably are overused. Emerging treatments, including several anticonvulsant and modern antipsychotic drugs, as well as lithium-alone or in selected combinations-are partially effective for bipolar depression. Interest in recognizing bipolar depression and seeking more effective, specific, and safer treatments for it are growing.
Harvard Review of Psychiatry 06/2010; 18(3):143-57. DOI:10.3109/10673221003747955 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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