Differences in adsorption mechanisms of heavy metal by two different plant biomasses: reed and brown seaweed.
ABSTRACT The adsorption of Pb(II) by two different biomaterials, reed (Phragmites australis) and brown seaweed (Sargassum horneri) biomass pretreated with CaCl(2), were compared in an attempt to explain the differences in adsorption performance between the two biosorbents. A very interesting characteristic was found in their individual adsorption performances; the Pb(II) adsorption capacity of brown seaweed (Q(max)=0.45 mmol/g) was much higher than that of reed (Q(max)=0.05 mmol/g), but its adsorption affinity (b=112 L/mmol) was much lower compared with that of reed (b=471 L/mmol). To elucidate the mechanism, the elemental components, ion exchange phenomenon and roles of functional groups of these two biosorbents were compared. The higher Pb(II) adsorption by brown seaweed could be due to its richness in total functional groups and calcium contents on its surface. In contrast, the functional complexity, higher zeta potential and pK(a) value (deprotonation state) of reed are believed to lead to its high adsorption affinity.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The removal of lead (II) and iron (III) from aqueous solutions using empty fruit bunch (EFB), oil palm leaves (OPL), oil palm frond (OPF), and oil palm bark (OPB) as biosorbents was investigated. The biosorbents were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Variables such as pH (2–12), biosorbent particle size (200–1,400 μm), adsorbent dosage (0.25–1.75 g/l), and agitation time (5–80 min) were investigated. The suitable pH range, particle size, adsorbent dosage, and agitation time for the removal of both metals were 5 to 6, 200 μm, 1 g/l, and 40 min, respectively. Under optimum conditions, OPB showed the highest adsorption efficiency of 80 % and 78 % for lead and iron, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm showed the best result for both metals. The kinetics of the biosorption process was analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The latter showed a better fit for both metals. OPB biomass introduced the lowest chemical oxygen demand into the treated solution, with an average amount of 32.9 mg/l.Water Air and Soil Pollution 224(3). · 1.75 Impact Factor