Does a healthy diet help weight management among overweight and obese people?
ABSTRACT A randomized dietary intervention trial across 4 years examined diet, weight, and obesity incidence (body mass index [BMI] > or = 30 kg/m(2)) differences between study groups. Participants were 1,510 breast cancer survivors with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) at entry. Dietary intake was assessed yearly by telephone; weight and height were measured at clinic visits. Intervention participants consumed more fruit, vegetables, and fiber and less energy from fat than control participants during follow-up cross-sectionally (p < .0001) and longitudinally (p < .0001); weight did not differ between study groups at any follow-up visit, and significant weight change difference was observed between groups only in the 1st year (p < .0001). Diet and weight results remained unchanged after stratifying by age and BMI. No difference in obesity incidence was found during follow-up (p > .10) among overweight members of either study group. Without specific efforts to reduce total energy intake, dietary modification does not reduce obesity or result in long-term weight loss.
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ABSTRACT: Increased vegetable and fruit consumption is encouraged to promote health, including the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Population health strategies (e.g. 5-A-Day or similar campaigns and subsidies on vegetables or fruit) that emphasize increased consumption may theoretically lead to increased energy intake and weight gain.BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):886. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-886 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary modification may be important in the prevention and control of chronic adult periodontitis. The role of promoting an adequate consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains in chronic periodontitis has not been thoroughly investigated. The main aim of this dietary intervention study was to assess the influence of a customised dietary intervention (aiming to increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains) on antioxidant status in adults with chronic periodontitis. Fifty-one participants, aged 30-65 years, were recruited from a UK Dental Hospital and randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. Both groups received normal clinical treatment but customised dietary advice was delivered to the intervention group by a community nutrition assistant. Dietary intakes, anthropometric parameters and biochemical indices with respect to blood and saliva and periodontal indices were evaluated at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months post-dietary intervention. At 3 and 6 months post-intervention, the intervention group showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity measured by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay compared to the control group. At 3 and 6 months after dietary intervention, the intervention group had significantly higher intakes of fruits and vegetables compared to the control group. The intake of whole grain was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, 6 months post-intervention. No significant differences were observed with respect to periodontal indices between groups. It is suggested that dietary advice may help to improve dietary habits and, consequently, the antioxidant status of patients with chronic periodontitis. However, the impact of such intervention on periodontal indices needs further investigation.Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 12/2013; 27(6). DOI:10.1111/jhn.12184 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Optimum levels and types of dietary fibre that provide the greatest beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals have yet to be determined in clinical trials. The present parallel design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. a fibre supplement (psyllium) or a healthy diet plus fibre supplement on fasting lipids, glucose, insulin and body composition. Overweight/obese adults were randomised to either control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB), healthy eating plus placebo (HLT) or healthy eating plus fibre supplement (HLT-FIB). There was a significant increase in fibre intake in HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups up to 59, 31 and 55 g, respectively, at 12 weeks when compared to control (20 g). Weight, BMI and % total body fat were significantly reduced in FIB and HLT-FIB groups, with weight and BMI significantly reduced in the HLT group compared with control at 12 weeks. HLT-FIB and HLT groups had significant reductions in TAG and insulin compared with control at 6 and 12 weeks, and in insulin compared with the FIB group at 12 weeks. The HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups all had significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared with control after 6 and 12 weeks. The present study demonstrated that simply adding psyllium fibre supplementation to a normal diet was sufficient to obtain beneficial effects in risk factors. However, a high-fibre diet consisting of a psyllium supplement plus fibre from a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in metabolic syndrome risk factors.The British journal of nutrition 01/2011; 105(1):90-100. DOI:10.1017/S0007114510003132 · 3.34 Impact Factor