Does a healthy diet help weight management among overweight and obese people?
ABSTRACT A randomized dietary intervention trial across 4 years examined diet, weight, and obesity incidence (body mass index [BMI] > or = 30 kg/m(2)) differences between study groups. Participants were 1,510 breast cancer survivors with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) at entry. Dietary intake was assessed yearly by telephone; weight and height were measured at clinic visits. Intervention participants consumed more fruit, vegetables, and fiber and less energy from fat than control participants during follow-up cross-sectionally (p < .0001) and longitudinally (p < .0001); weight did not differ between study groups at any follow-up visit, and significant weight change difference was observed between groups only in the 1st year (p < .0001). Diet and weight results remained unchanged after stratifying by age and BMI. No difference in obesity incidence was found during follow-up (p > .10) among overweight members of either study group. Without specific efforts to reduce total energy intake, dietary modification does not reduce obesity or result in long-term weight loss.
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ABSTRACT: Vegetables and fruit provide a significant part of human nutrition, as they are important sources of nutrients, dietary fibre, and phytochemicals. However, it is uncertain whether the risk of certain chronic diseases can be reduced by increased consumption of vegetables or fruit by the general public, and what strength of evidence has to be allocated to such an association. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the studies available in the literature and the respective study results has been performed and evaluated regarding obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, osteoporosis, eye diseases, and dementia. For judgement, the strength of evidence for a risk association, the level of evidence, and the number of studies were considered, the quality of the studies and their estimated relevance based on study design and size. For hypertension, CHD, and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Independent of overweight, there is probable evidence that there is no influence of increased consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD, and RA indicate that an increase in vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to the prevention of these diseases. For IBD, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, there was insufficient evidence regarding an association with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. This critical review on the associations between the intake of vegetables and fruit and the risk of several chronic diseases shows that a high daily intake of these foods promotes health. Therefore, from a scientific point of view, national campaigns to increase vegetable and fruit consumption are justified. The promotion of vegetable and fruit consumption by nutrition and health policies is a preferable strategy to decrease the burden of several chronic diseases in Western societies.European Journal of Nutrition 06/2012; 51(6):637-63. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased vegetable and fruit consumption is encouraged to promote health, including the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Population health strategies (e.g. 5-A-Day or similar campaigns and subsidies on vegetables or fruit) that emphasize increased consumption may theoretically lead to increased energy intake and weight gain.BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):886. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary modification may be important in the prevention and control of chronic adult periodontitis. The role of promoting an adequate consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains in chronic periodontitis has not been thoroughly investigated. The main aim of this dietary intervention study was to assess the influence of a customised dietary intervention (aiming to increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains) on antioxidant status in adults with chronic periodontitis. Fifty-one participants, aged 30-65 years, were recruited from a UK Dental Hospital and randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. Both groups received normal clinical treatment but customised dietary advice was delivered to the intervention group by a community nutrition assistant. Dietary intakes, anthropometric parameters and biochemical indices with respect to blood and saliva and periodontal indices were evaluated at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months post-dietary intervention. At 3 and 6 months post-intervention, the intervention group showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity measured by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay compared to the control group. At 3 and 6 months after dietary intervention, the intervention group had significantly higher intakes of fruits and vegetables compared to the control group. The intake of whole grain was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, 6 months post-intervention. No significant differences were observed with respect to periodontal indices between groups. It is suggested that dietary advice may help to improve dietary habits and, consequently, the antioxidant status of patients with chronic periodontitis. However, the impact of such intervention on periodontal indices needs further investigation.Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 12/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor