Image-based models of cardiac structure with applications in arrhythmia and defibrillation studies.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, MD, USA.
Journal of electrocardiology (Impact Factor: 1.08). 02/2009; 42(2):157.e1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2008.12.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this article is to present a set of methods for constructing realistic computational models of cardiac structure from high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images and to demonstrate the applicability of the models in simulation studies. The structural image is segmented to identify various regions such as normal myocardium, ventricles, and infarct. A finite element mesh is generated from the processed structural data, and fiber orientations are assigned to the elements. The Purkinje system, when visible, is modeled using linear elements that interconnect a set of manually identified points. The methods were applied to construct 2 different models; and 2 simulation studies, which demonstrate the applicability of the models in the analysis of arrhythmia and defibrillation, were performed. The models represent cardiac structure with unprecedented detail for simulation studies.

  • Source
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 10/2010; 8(1):109-10. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patient-specific simulations of heart (dys)function aimed at personalizing cardiac therapy are hampered by the absence of in vivo imaging technology for clinically acquiring myocardial fiber orientations. The objective of this project was to develop a methodology to estimate cardiac fiber orientations from in vivo images of patient heart geometries. An accurate representation of ventricular geometry and fiber orientations was reconstructed, respectively, from high-resolution ex vivo structural magnetic resonance (MR) and diffusion tensor (DT) MR images of a normal human heart, referred to as the atlas. Ventricular geometry of a patient heart was extracted, via semiautomatic segmentation, from an in vivo computed tomography (CT) image. Using image transformation algorithms, the atlas ventricular geometry was deformed to match that of the patient. Finally, the deformation field was applied to the atlas fiber orientations to obtain an estimate of patient fiber orientations. The accuracy of the fiber estimates was assessed using six normal and three failing canine hearts. The mean absolute difference between inclination angles of acquired and estimated fiber orientations was 15.4 °. Computational simulations of ventricular activation maps and pseudo-ECGs in sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia indicated that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.The new insights obtained from the project will pave the way for the development of patient-specific models of the heart that can aid physicians in personalized diagnosis and decisions regarding electrophysiological interventions.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Instability in ventricular repolarization in the presence of premature activations (PA) plays an important role in arrhythmogenesis. However, such instability cannot be detected clinically. This study developed a methodology for detecting QT interval (QTI) dynamics instability from the ECG and explored the contribution of PA and QTI instability to ventricular tachycardia (VT) onset. To examine the contribution of PAs and QTI instability to VT onset, ECGs of 24 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 12 of whom had sustained VT (VT) and 12 nonsustained VT (NSVT), were used. From each patient ECG, 2 10-minute-long ECG recordings were extracted, 1 right before VT onset (onset epoch) and 1 at least 1 hour before it (control epoch). To ascertain how PA affects QTI dynamics stability, pseudo-ECGs were calculated from an MRI-based human ventricular model. Clinical and pseudo-ECGs were subdivided into 1-minute recordings (minECGs). QTI dynamics stability of each minECG was assessed with a novel approach. Frequency of PAs (f(PA)) and the number of minECGs with unstable QTI dynamics (N(us)) were determined for each patient. In the VT group, f(PA) and N(us) of the onset epoch were larger than in control. Positive regression relationships between f(PA) and N(us) were identified in both groups. The simulations showed that both f(PA) and the PA degree of prematurity contribute to QTI dynamics instability. Increased PA frequency and QTI dynamics instability precede VT onset in patients with acute myocardial infarction, as determined by novel methodology for detecting instability in QTI dynamics from clinical ECGs.
    Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 08/2011; 4(6):858-66. · 5.95 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 10, 2014