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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal absorption, bioavailability, hepatic and pulmonary extraction and elimination of low doses of benzo[a]pyrene (BP; 0.7-4.4 nmol) were studied in the rat using [G-3H]BP. The hepatic extraction ratio was 0.4 both in a liver perfusion model and in vivo as determined by comparison of intravenous and intraportal infusion experiments in anaesthetized rats. The pulmonary extraction ratio in vivo was 0.11 in control rats and 0.16 in rats pretreated with an inducer of cytochrome P-448. Analysis of BP concentrations in atrial blood and in the bile after continuous BP infusion into the duodenum of anaesthetized rats indicated that at least 30% of the dose must have been absorbed from the gut. Studies have also been performed in conscious rats given BP either as an intravenous bolus or by gavage. The bioavailability was determined to be about 10% in these experiments. Elimination proceeded in a triphasic manner with a half-life of 16.6 hr for the terminal phase.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 02/1988; 26(1):45-51. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ah locus encodes a cytosolic receptor that regulates the induction of certain drug-metabolizing enzymes by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene. Some inbred mouse strains such as C57BL/6N have the high-affinity Ah receptor (Ahb/Ahb), others such as DBA/2N, the poor-affinity receptor (Ahd/Ahd). Presence of the high-affinity receptor leads to greater cytochrome P1-450 induction by benzo[a]pyrene; in turn, enhanced benzo[a]pyrene metabolism can result in more toxic intermediates or greater detoxication, depending upon the test system studied. Benzo[a]pyrene in the growth medium, in direct contact with cultured myeloid cells, is more toxic to C57BL/6N than DBA/2N cultured cells. Oral benzo[a]pyrene induces P1-450 (measured by benzo[a]pyrene trans-7,8-dihydrodiol formation determined by high-performance liquid chromatography) in C57BL/6N but not DBA/2N intestine and liver. In the bone marrow of oral benzo[a]pyrene-treated C57BL/6N and DBA/2N mice, the magnitude of P1-450 induction is about the same. WB/ReJ (Ahd/Ahd), C57BL/6J (Ahb/Ahb), or (WB/ReJ)(C57BL/6J)F1 (Ahb/Ahd) marrow was transplanted into lethally irradiated (WB/ReJ)(C57BL/6J)F1 mice. DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) marrow was transplanted into lethally irradiated BALB/cByJ (Ahb/Ahb) mice and vice versa. Mice having the Ahd/Ahd intestine and liver died in less than 3 weeks of benzo[a]pyrene feeding (120 mg/kg/day), irrespective of the source of transfused marrow. All the data are consistent with pharmacokinetic differences in the tissue distribution of benzo[a]pyrene: mice having the high-affinity receptor, and therefore the P1-450 induction process in the intestine and liver, are protected from oral benzo[a]pyrene-induced myelotoxicity.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/1983; 70(3):390-401. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a potent carcinogen produced in significant quantities during pyrolysis of such substances as coal, wood, and cigarettes. Several researchers have shown that the lipophilic storage and soil sediment accumulation of many organic solutes is proportional to the partitioning between octanol-1 and water. The octanol-water partition coefficient (P) is defined as P = C/sub o//C/sub w/, where C/sub o/ and C/sub w/ are the concentration of the solute in n-octanol and water. Considerable data are available demonstrating that P values measured in the laboratory can be used to predict the environmental behavior of organic pollutants. Literature searches reveal that calculated, but not measured, log P values are reported for BaP. This laboratory study was initiated to define better the log P of BaP.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 04/1984; 32(3):316-23. · 1.11 Impact Factor