Proteomics of skeletal muscle aging.
ABSTRACT Extended human longevity has resulted in increasing numbers of elderly persons in the general population. However, old age is also associated with a variety of serious physical disorders. Frailty among sedentary elderly patients is related to the impaired structure and function of contractile fibers. Biochemical research into cellular mechanisms that underlie sarcopenia promises to acquire the scientific basis of evidence to aid the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The recent application of MS-based proteomic methodology has identified a large cohort of disease-specific markers of sarcopenia. This review critically examines the biomedical implications of the results obtained from the proteomic screening of both aged human muscle and established animal models of sarcopenia. Substantial alterations in proteins involved in key metabolic pathways, regulatory and contractile elements of the actomyosin apparatus, myofibrillar remodeling and the cellular stress response are discussed. A multi-factorial etiology appears to be the basis for a slower-twitching aged fiber population, which exhibits a shift to more aerobic-oxidative metabolism. It is hoped that the detailed biomedical characterization of the newly identified biomarkers of sarcopenia will translate into better treatment options for reversing age-dependent muscle degeneration, which could improve the standard of living for a large portion of society.
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ABSTRACT: Investigations mostly in animal models have shown a role of sialic acid in the morphology and functionality of skeletal muscle during development and adult life. Several studies in humans have been performed regarding changes in sialic acid expression in a particular pathology, hereditary inclusion body myopathy, leading to muscular weakness and atrophy, with a similar phenomenon appearing also in sarcopenia of aging. In this study the expression of monomeric and polymeric sialic acids was evaluated in human skeletal muscle during adult life. Surgical biopsies of the Quadriceps femoris muscle from men aged 18-25 years (young group; n=8) and men aged 72-78 (elderly group; n=10) were collected for analysis. Expression of sialic acids was evaluated using lectin histochemistry, associated with enzymatic and chemical treatments to characterize monomeric and polymeric sialic acids. The polysialic acid expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Various types of sialic acid in the muscle tissue, in different amounts in the study groups, were detected. Monomeric sialic acids decreased in the elderly group compared with the young group, whereas polysialic acid increased. Sialic acid acetylation was present only in the young group. These findings demonstrated that changes in the expression of sialic acids in skeletal muscle tissue may be related to morphofunctional modifications occurring during aging.Acta histochemica 04/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular chaperones play a key role in normal muscle function and during physiological adaptations to extensive exercise and numerous forms of cellular stress. The various classes of heat shock proteins and related chaperones are also involved in the molecular pathogenesis of a large number of neuromuscular diseases. Several mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies have recently shown that the expression levels of molecular chaperones are severely altered in dystrophin-deficient muscles. Dystrophin isoform Dp427 is a large membrane cytoskeletal protein and its deficiency is the primary underlying cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Current efforts have focused on the establishment of a comprehensive biomarker signature of dystrophinopathy in order to improve diagnostic methods, establish reliable prognostic factors and identify novel therapeutic targets. Following an introduction into the biology of heat shock proteins and their general role in skeletal muscle, this review outlines the proteomic profiling of molecular chaperones in dystrophinopathy. The focus is especially on the molecular fate of heat shock proteins cvHSP (HSPB7), αBC (HSPB5), HSP70 (HSPA) and HSP90 (HSPC) in dystrophin-deficient muscles and their involvement in progressive muscular dystrophy. Furthermore the potential usage of distinct chaperones as disease markers of secondary pathobiochemical changes for the evaluation of novel treatment options is discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 06/2014; 8(11-12). · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001) in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides) subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA) of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH) was 1.54-fold (p = 0.0064) more abundant in HCR than LCR soleus. This discovery was verified using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) of the y5 ion (551.21 m/z) of the doubly-charged peptide SLGVGFATR (454.19 m/z) of residues 23-31 of FABPH. SRM was conducted on technical replicates of each biological sample and exhibited a coefficient of variation of 20%. The abundance of FABPH measured by SRM was 2.84-fold greater (p = 0.0095) in HCR muscle. In addition, SRM of FABPH was performed in vastus lateralis samples of young and elderly humans with different habitual activity levels (collected during a previous study) finding FABPH abundance was 2.23-fold greater (p = 0.0396) in endurance-trained individuals regardless of differences in age. In summary, our findings in HCR/LCR rats provide protein-level confirmation for earlier transcriptome profiling work and show LC-MS is a viable means of profiling the abundance of almost all major metabolic enzymes of skeletal muscle in a highly parallel manner. Moreover, our approach is relatively more time efficient than techniques relying on orthogonal separations, and we demonstrate LC-MS profiling of the HCR/LCR selection model was able to highlight biomarkers that also exhibit differences in trained and untrained human muscle.Proteomes. 12/2013; 1(3):290-308.