Effects of zinc levels on activities of gastrointestinal enzymes in growing rats.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effect of different zinc (Zn) levels on activities of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes of growing rats. Four diets including Zn-adequate (ZA; 46 mg/kg, control), Zn-deficient (ZD; 3 mg/kg), high Zn supply (ZH; 234 mg/kg) and pair-fed in which animals received the ZA diet at restricted amounts reflecting feed intake of the ZD group were fed to rats for 5 weeks. Dietary Zn was supplemented with ZnO. The results showed that Zn deficiency resulted in decreases in body weight, while ZH supply stimulated growth. The activities of sucrase, lactase and lipase were unaffected by dietary Zn levels. Maltase activity, however, was reduced in ZD group and elevated in ZH group. Amylase and protease activities were depressed by zinc deficiency. However, rats fed the Zn-repletion diet displayed higher activity of pepsin, pancreatic amylase and protease. In particular, ZH supply did have no effect on intestinal hydrolases activities. The present study suggested that zinc deficiency impaired the activities of digestive enzymes and growth of animals. However, ZH supply might improve the digestion of nutrients via increasing activities of gastrointestinal hydrolase and probably enhanced animal health.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine whether zinc (Zn) deficiency augmented the frequency of micronuclei, an indicator of chromosome aberration, and the induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of cellular DNA damage derived from oxidative stress, in rat bone marrow cells or not. Both the frequency of micronuclei and the induction of 8-OHdG were significantly increased in rats fed with a Zn-deficient versus a standard diet for 6 weeks (p < 0.005). The supplementation of Zn with a standard diet for 4 weeks to rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 6 weeks restored the enhanced induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG to levels comparable to those seen in rats fed with a standard diet for 10 weeks, indicating that the shortage of Zn in the body is involved in the induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG. Again, the membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic superoxide scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, treatment (100 μmol/kg, twice a day) for 10 days prior to the termination of dietary treatment reduced the induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG in rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 6 weeks to levels comparable to those in rats fed with a standard diet for 6 weeks, indicating that superoxide radical participates in the induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG. In fact, the endogenous superoxide scavenger, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, was significantly reduced in the bone marrow cells of rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 6 weeks when compared to those of rats fed with a standard diet for 6 weeks (p < 0.005). These observations demonstrate that Zn deficiency elevates the frequency of micronuclei and the induction of 8-OHdG through an increase in the biological action of the superoxide radical. This suggests an increase in carcinogenic initiation resulting from Zn deficiency-induced oxidative stress.Biological trace element research 05/2013; · 1.92 Impact Factor
Article: Performance, organ zinc concentration, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA expression in piglets fed with different levels of dietary zinc Performance, organ zinc concentration, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA expression in piglets fed with different levels of dietary zinc[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed at investigating the effect of dietary zinc on performance, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA levels of enzymes and two zinc transporters in piglets. A total of 126 piglets were weaned at 26 ±1 days of age and randomly allocated into three groups fed with diets 50, 150 and 2500 mg zinc/kg. Performance was recorded and at weekly intervals, eight piglets per group were killed. The activities of isolated brush border membrane enzymes including lactase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase-N and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), and the relative transcript abundance of aminopeptidase-N (APN), sucrase–isomaltase (SUC), IAP and the two zinc transporters SLC39A4 (ZIP4) and SLC30A1 (ZnT1) were investigated in the jejunum. Feeding pharmacological zinc levels increased weight gain (p < 0.001) during the first week, but performance was lower (p < 0.05) in the third week. Organ zinc concentrations were increased by high dietary zinc level. The activity of IAP was higher (p < 0.05) with the highest dietary zinc level, no effects were determined for other enzymes. Dietary zinc level had no effect on transcript abundance of digestive enzymes. The mRNA levels decreased (p < 0.001) for ZIP4, and increased for ZnT1 (p < 0.05) with pharmacological zinc levels. In conclusion, pharmacological zinc levels improved performance in the short-term. Intestinal mRNA level of zinc transporters changed with high zinc supply, but this did not prevent zinc accumulation in tissues, suggesting hampered homoeostatic regulation. This might cause impaired performance during longer supply.Archives of Animal Nutrition 06/2013; 67(3):248-261. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved performance in survival, growth and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase). The concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, total amino acid, total carbohydrate and total lipid), total haemocyte count and differential haemocyte count were elevated in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. However, the PL fed with 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) showed negative results. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], metabolic enzymes [glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)] and the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the hepatopancreas and muscle showed no significant alterations in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. Whereas, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) supplemented feed fed PL showed significant elevations in SOD, CAT, LPO, GOT and GPT. Therefore, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) was found to be toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii.Biological trace element research. 05/2014;