Work loss and work entry among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus: Comparisons with a national matched sample

Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.87). 02/2009; 61(2):247-58. DOI: 10.1002/art.24213
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To prospectively track work loss among those employed and work entry among those not employed in a cohort of persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), assess risk factors for these outcomes, and compare rates of the outcomes with a matched national sample.
The present study analyzed 4 years of data from the Lupus Outcomes Study (LOS), augmented by information on the local labor market from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time from study initiation until work loss or work entry, and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate factors affecting these outcomes. Finally, we compared rates of work loss and work entry in the LOS with rates in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).
At study initiation, 394 LOS participants (51%) were employed, of whom 92 (23.4%) experienced work loss. In multivariate analysis, older age, lower cognitive and physical functioning, and higher reports of depressive symptoms predicted work loss. In comparison with the SIPP sample, rates of work loss did not differ. Of the 376 LOS participants not employed, 76 (20.2%) experienced work entry. In multivariate analysis, less disease activity, fewer lung manifestations, better physical functioning, and shorter time since last employment predicted work entry. In comparison with the SIPP, rates of work entry were only lower between ages 35 and 55 years.
Until age 55 years, low rates of employment among persons with SLE may be due to lower rates of work entry rather than higher rates of work loss. Beyond age 55 years, both high rates of work loss and low rates of work entry contribute to low rates of employment.

  • La Presse Médicale 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.03.004 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare educational and vocational outcomes among adults with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and adult-onset SLE.Methods We used data derived from the 2002–2010 cycles of the Lupus Outcomes Study, a longitudinal cohort of 1,204 adult subjects with SLE. Subjects ages 18–60 years living in the US (n = 929) were included in the analysis and were classified as childhood-onset SLE if age at diagnosis was <18 years (n = 115). Logistic regression was used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted effect of childhood-onset SLE, sex, race/ethnicity, baseline age, urban or rural location, and US region on the likelihood of completing a bachelor's degree. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the effect of childhood-onset SLE, demographics, education, and disease-related factors on the odds of employment, accounting for multiple observations over the study period.ResultsSubjects with childhood-onset SLE were on average younger (mean ± SD 29 ± 10 years versus 44 ± 9 years), with longer disease duration (mean ± SD 15 ± 10 years versus 11 ± 8 years). Subjects with adult-onset SLE and childhood-onset SLE subjects were equally likely to complete a bachelor's degree. However, subjects with childhood-onset SLE were significantly less likely to be employed, independent of demographic and disease characteristics (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.42–0.91).Conclusion While subjects with SLE are just as likely as those with adult-onset SLE to complete college education, childhood-onset SLE significantly increases the risk of not working in adulthood, even when controlling for disease and demographic factors. Exploring reasons for low rates of employment and providing vocational support may be important to maximize long-term functional outcomes in patients with childhood-onset SLE.
    05/2014; 66(5). DOI:10.1002/acr.22228
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    ABSTRACT: To assess prevalence and correlates of work presenteeism, absenteeism and work disability (WD) in patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) and matched controls. Patients with SLE from six medical centres were recruited to complete a questionnaire consisting of several prevalidated survey instruments. The subject's rheumatologist completed medical history. Subjects recruited two non-SLE 'best friend' controls with matching demographics to complete a control survey. Analyses employed Student's t tests, χ(2) tests and logistic regression models. 344 subjects with SLE and 322 controls submitted completed questionnaires. Mean pain, fatigue, Brief Cognitive Symptoms Index (BCSI) scores and depressive symptoms were worse in patients with SLE with WD (all p<0.01). WD was associated with African-American race, older age (51-65 years) and less than 4-year college education (all p<0.01). High presenteeism was associated with low pain and fatigue levels, higher BCSI scores and negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (all p<0.05). Increased pain and fatigue were associated with elevated absenteeism (p<0.05). Subjects with physically and cognitively demanding work reported worse presenteeism compared with controls with similar jobs (77% vs 85%, p<0.05 and 75% vs 85%, p<0.001), respectively. Patients with most cognitively demanding jobs reported greater weekly absenteeism (mean, 5.9 h) compared with controls (mean, 6.9 overtime hours, p<0.05). The questionnaire demonstrated increased WD in SLE. Highly physical and highly cognitive jobs are challenging to patients with SLE and had increased absenteeism compared with controls. Depressive symptoms were correlated with better presenteeism without major socio-demographic determinants. Employability may be enhanced by improving treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with SLE.
    01/2015; 2(1):e000058. DOI:10.1136/lupus-2014-000058

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