Tomatoes are discussed to have an important role in the prevention of and therapy for prostate cancer (PCA). Whether or not they are also useful in the primary and secondary prevention of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is not clear. This review summarises the results of original contributions with a focus on interventional studies. Whereas epidemiological studies on BPH prevention provide no evidence for a preventive potential of tomatoes and tomato products, the majority of interventional trials points to an increased DNA resistance against oxidative-induced damage. Even though their effect on a surrogate marker of the IGF pathway cannot be evaluated so far due to insufficient data, the consumption of tomatoes and tomato products may probably protect from PCA--at least when considering low-grade PCA. Thus, regular consumption of these foods can be recommended for the prevention of PCA. Tomato products might also be useful in the therapy for BPH and PCA. The intake of isolated lycopene does not protect from the development of PCA. However, in the doses achieved by consumption of tomato products, lycopene ingestion might also be effective in PCA therapy.
"Lycopene is abundant in red fruits such as tomato and water melon. The protective effects of lycopene against many different types of cancer including prostate, breast, and skin cancer have been reported in many studies [9,10]. These anticancer effects seem to be influenced by the antioxidant properties of lycopene. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of lycopene supplementation on the antioxidant system was investigated by analyzing lipid peroxide levels, glutathione contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities in Mongolian gerbils fed a high fat diet. Gerbils were fed on each experimental diet for 6 weeks; normal diet (NC), normal diet with 0.05% lycopene (NL), high fat diet (HF), and a high fat diet with 0.05% lycopene (HFL). Dietary supplementation of lycopene increased hepatic lycopene level in gerbils fed a normal or high fat diet (P < 0.05). Liver and erythrocyte concentrations of lipid peroxide increased in gerbils fed a high fat diet, whereas lycopene supplementation decreased liver and erythrocyte concentrations of lipid peroxide (P < 0.05). Hepatic total glutathione content was higher in the NL group than that in the NC group (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant status in plasma increased following lycopene supplementation compared with that of the non-lycopene supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Hepatic catalase activity increased following dietary lycopene supplementation (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity in liver remained unchanged with lycopene supplementation, but erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity increased in NL group compared with NC group (P < 0.05). Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased in the NL group compared to NC group (P < 0.05). Liver and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly in the NL group compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Liver glutathione reductase activity was higher in the NL group than that in the NC group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that lycopene supplementation may be efficient for preventing chronic diseases induced by oxidative stress related to high fat diet.
Nutrition research and practice 02/2013; 7(1):26-33. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2013.7.1.26 · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the antiinflammatory activity of Serenoa repens (SeR), LY, and) on proinflammatory phenotype in rat peritoneal macrophages (Ms) stimulated with Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in the prostate of rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction. SeR, combined with other compounds, such as LY and Se is used to relieve symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of BPH and represents a target for anti-BPH drugs.
After stimulation with 1 μg/mL of LPS, peritoneal rat MΦs were coincubated with LY (2 μg/mL), Se (0.03 μg/mL), and SeR (10 μg/mL), alone or in association (LY-Se-SeR) and with RPMI. Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2), 5-lypoxygenase (5-LOX), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inhibitor κBα (IκB-α) protein were evaluated by Western blot. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) binding activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene expression was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also evaluated malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels.
LPS stimulation produced a proinflammatory phenotype in rat peritoneal MΦs. LY, Se, and SeR inhibited the inflammatory cascade, but the Ly-Se-SeR association caused a greater inhibitory effect on the expression of COX-2, 5-LOX, and iNOS. The Ly-Se-SeR association showed a higher efficacy in reducing the loss of IκB-α, the increased NF-κB binding activity, the enhanced mRNA levels of TNF-α, the elevated MDA, and nitrite content. The LY-Se-SeR association in vivo caused a greater inhibitory effect on prostate inflammation induced in rats by partial bladder outlet obstruction.
The LY-Se-SeR association might be useful in the treatment of BPH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consumption of tomato products has been associated with a decreased risk for chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-inflammatory potential of tomato ketchup was evaluated by studying the effect of tomato ketchup extracts and bioactives from tomato ketchup on human monocytes and vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were pre-treated for 1 h with either individual bioactives (7.5 µM lycopene, 1.4 µM α-tocopherol or 55 µM ascorbic acid) or a combination of these three compounds, or with the hydrophilic or lipophilic tomato ketchup extracts or with the two extracts combined. After the pretreatment, the cells were washed and challenged with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 6 h. The medium was used for the determination of the release of cytokines and the chemotaxis of monocytes. Inflammatory protein expression and production were assayed with real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. It was found that tomato ketchup extracts significantly reduced gene expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 in HUVEC after the inflammatory challenge, whereas the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased. Chemotaxis was effectively impeded as demonstrated by a reduced monocyte migration. This effect correlated with the reduction of IL-8 production in the presence of the test compounds and extracts. The results consistently emphasize the contribution of lycopene to the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato ketchup. Other compounds in tomato ketchup such as α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid appeared to strengthen the anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene. The tomato ketchup extracts subtly interfered with several inflammatory phases that inhibit chemotaxis. Such a pleotropic mode of action exemplifies its potential mitigation of diseases characterized by prolonged low grade inflammation.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114387. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114387 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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