[Tomatoes and lycopene in prevention and therapy--is there an evidence for prostate diseases?].
ABSTRACT Tomatoes are discussed to have an important role in the prevention of and therapy for prostate cancer (PCA). Whether or not they are also useful in the primary and secondary prevention of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is not clear. This review summarises the results of original contributions with a focus on interventional studies. Whereas epidemiological studies on BPH prevention provide no evidence for a preventive potential of tomatoes and tomato products, the majority of interventional trials points to an increased DNA resistance against oxidative-induced damage. Even though their effect on a surrogate marker of the IGF pathway cannot be evaluated so far due to insufficient data, the consumption of tomatoes and tomato products may probably protect from PCA--at least when considering low-grade PCA. Thus, regular consumption of these foods can be recommended for the prevention of PCA. Tomato products might also be useful in the therapy for BPH and PCA. The intake of isolated lycopene does not protect from the development of PCA. However, in the doses achieved by consumption of tomato products, lycopene ingestion might also be effective in PCA therapy.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of lycopene supplementation on the antioxidant system was investigated by analyzing lipid peroxide levels, glutathione contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities in Mongolian gerbils fed a high fat diet. Gerbils were fed on each experimental diet for 6 weeks; normal diet (NC), normal diet with 0.05% lycopene (NL), high fat diet (HF), and a high fat diet with 0.05% lycopene (HFL). Dietary supplementation of lycopene increased hepatic lycopene level in gerbils fed a normal or high fat diet (P < 0.05). Liver and erythrocyte concentrations of lipid peroxide increased in gerbils fed a high fat diet, whereas lycopene supplementation decreased liver and erythrocyte concentrations of lipid peroxide (P < 0.05). Hepatic total glutathione content was higher in the NL group than that in the NC group (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant status in plasma increased following lycopene supplementation compared with that of the non-lycopene supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Hepatic catalase activity increased following dietary lycopene supplementation (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity in liver remained unchanged with lycopene supplementation, but erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity increased in NL group compared with NC group (P < 0.05). Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased in the NL group compared to NC group (P < 0.05). Liver and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly in the NL group compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Liver glutathione reductase activity was higher in the NL group than that in the NC group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that lycopene supplementation may be efficient for preventing chronic diseases induced by oxidative stress related to high fat diet.Nutrition research and practice 02/2013; 7(1):26-33. · 0.97 Impact Factor