The adaptor protein talin serves both to activate the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules and to couple integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Integrin activation has been shown to involve binding of the talin FERM domain to membrane proximal sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin beta-subunit. However, a second integrin-binding site (IBS2) has been identified near the C-terminal end of the talin rod. Here we report the crystal structure of IBS2 (residues 1974-2293), which comprises two five-helix bundles, "IBS2-A" (1974-2139) and "IBS2-B" (2140-2293), connected by a continuous helix with a distinct kink at its center that is stabilized by side-chain H-bonding. Solution studies using small angle x-ray scattering and NMR point to a fairly flexible quaternary organization. Using pull-down and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we demonstrate that integrin binding requires both IBS2 domains, as does binding to acidic phospholipids and robust targeting to focal adhesions. We have defined the membrane proximal region of the integrin cytoplasmic domain as the major binding region, although more membrane distal regions are also required for strong binding. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis points to an important electrostatic component to binding. Thermal unfolding experiments show that integrin binding induces conformational changes in the IBS2 module, which we speculate are linked to vinculin and membrane binding.
"Indeed, both the N-terminal FERM and the C-terminal rod domains of Talin have been found to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of integrin β-subunits. Specifically, the F3/PTB-like subdomain of the Talin FERM domain binds to a canonical NPXY motif at the membrane-proximal region of the integrin β-subunit cytoplasmic tail, whereas the integrin-binding site located in the Talin rod domain (IBS2) binds to a more distal region . Interestingly, Talin may also undergo an autoinhibitory intramolecular interaction involving its N- and C-terminal portions whereby binding sites for interactors are masked. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations of the KRIT1 gene (CCM1) have been associated with the Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) disease, which is characterized by serious alterations of brain capillary architecture. The KRIT1 protein contains multiple interaction domains and motifs, suggesting that it might act as a scaffold for the assembly of functional protein complexes involved in signaling networks. In previous work, we defined structure-function relationships underlying KRIT1 intramolecular and intermolecular interactions and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and found that KRIT1 plays an important role in molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis to prevent oxidative cellular damage. Here we report the identification of the Kelch family protein Nd1-L as a novel molecular interactor of KRIT1. This interaction was discovered through yeast two-hybrid screening of a mouse embryo cDNA library, and confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays of recombinant proteins, as well as by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins in human endothelial cells. Furthermore, using distinct KRIT1 isoforms and mutants, we defined the role of KRIT1 domains in the Nd1-L/KRIT1 interaction. Finally, functional assays showed that Nd1-L may contribute to the regulation of KRIT1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and cooperate with KRIT1 in modulating the expression levels of the antioxidant protein SOD2, opening a novel avenue for future mechanistic studies. The identification of Nd1-L as a novel KRIT1 interacting protein provides a novel piece of the molecular puzzle involving KRIT1 and suggests a potential functional cooperation in cellular responses to oxidative stress, thus expanding the framework of molecular complexes and mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenesis of CCM disease.
PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e44705. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044705 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The talin head is linked via residues 401–481 to a long flexible rod (482-C-terminus) consisting of 61 α-helices organised into a series of amphipathic 4- or 5-helix bundles , , . The talin rod contains an integrin binding site ,  and several actin-binding sites (ABS) , the best characterised of which is associated with the most C-terminal helical bundle . This is followed by a single helix (helix 62) that forms an anti-parallel dimer, and appears to be largely responsible for formation of talin homodimers . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Talin is a large (∼2540 residues) dimeric adaptor protein that associates with the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules in cell-extracellular matrix junctions (focal adhesions; FAs), where it both activates integrins and couples them to the actin cytoskeleton. Calpain2-mediated cleavage of talin between the head and rod domains has previously been shown to be important in FA turnover. Here we identify an additional calpain2-cleavage site that removes the dimerisation domain from the C-terminus of the talin rod, and show that an E2492G mutation inhibits calpain cleavage at this site in vitro, and increases the steady state levels of talin1 in vivo. Expression of a GFP-tagged talin1 E2492G mutant in CHO.K1 cells inhibited FA turnover and the persistence of cell protrusion just as effectively as a L432G mutation that inhibits calpain cleavage between the talin head and rod domains. Moreover, incorporation of both mutations into a single talin molecule had an additive effect clearly demonstrating that calpain cleavage at both the N- and C-terminal regions of talin contribute to the regulation of FA dynamics. However, the N-terminal site was more sensitive to calpain cleavage suggesting that lower levels of calpain are required to liberate the talin head and rod fragments than are needed to clip off the C-terminal dimerisation domain. The talin head and rod liberated by calpain2 cleavage have recently been shown to play roles in an integrin activation cycle important in FA turnover and in FAK-dependent cell cycle progression respectively. The half-life of the talin head is tightly regulated by ubiquitination and we suggest that removal of the C-terminal dimerisation domain from the talin rod may provide a mechanism both for terminating the signalling function of the talin rod and indeed for inactivating full-length talin thereby promoting FA turnover at the rear of the cell.
PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e34461. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034461 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"This is entirely consistent with immuno-localisation studies which show that the two isoforms are differentially distributed within the same cell. Talins binds to ␤-integrin cytoplasmic tails via their N-terminal FERM domains (Anthis et al., 2009, 2010) although there is also an integrin binding site in the talin rod (Gingras et al., 2009; Moes et al., 2007). Interestingly, the talin2 FERM domain has a slightly higher affinity for ␤-integrin tails than the talin1 FERM domain, and in particular, it binds to the muscle-specific ␤1D-integrin splice variant far more tightly than any other known interaction between ␤-integrin subunits and talin. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Talins are adaptor proteins that connect the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors to cytoskeletal actin. Vertebrates express two closely related talins encoded by separate genes, and while it is well established that talin1 plays a key role in cell adhesion and spreading, little is known about the role of talin2. To facilitate such studies, we report the characterisation of 4 new isoform-specific talin mouse monoclonal antibodies that work in Western blotting, immuno-precipitation, immuno-fluorescence and immuno-histochemistry. Using these antibodies, we show that talin1 and talin2 do not form heterodimers, and that they are differentially localised within the cell. Talin1 was concentrated in peripheral focal adhesions while talin2 was observed in both focal and fibrillar adhesions, and knock-down of talin2 compromised fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Although differentiated human macrophages express both isoforms, only talin1 showed discrete staining and was localised to the ring structure of podosomes. However, siRNA-mediated knock-down of macrophage talin2 led to a significant reduction in podosomal matrix degradation. We have also used the antibodies to localise each isoform in tissue sections using both cryostat and paraffin-embedded material. In skeletal muscle talin2 was localised to both myotendinous junctions and costameres while talin1 was restricted to the former structure. In contrast, both isoforms co-localised in kidney with staining of the glomerulus, and the tubular epithelial and interstitial cells of the cortex and medulla. We anticipate that these antibodies will form a valuable resource for future studies on the function of the two major talin isoforms.
European journal of cell biology 03/2012; 91(3):180-91. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.12.003 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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