Structural determinants of integrin binding to the talin rod.
ABSTRACT The adaptor protein talin serves both to activate the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules and to couple integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Integrin activation has been shown to involve binding of the talin FERM domain to membrane proximal sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin beta-subunit. However, a second integrin-binding site (IBS2) has been identified near the C-terminal end of the talin rod. Here we report the crystal structure of IBS2 (residues 1974-2293), which comprises two five-helix bundles, "IBS2-A" (1974-2139) and "IBS2-B" (2140-2293), connected by a continuous helix with a distinct kink at its center that is stabilized by side-chain H-bonding. Solution studies using small angle x-ray scattering and NMR point to a fairly flexible quaternary organization. Using pull-down and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we demonstrate that integrin binding requires both IBS2 domains, as does binding to acidic phospholipids and robust targeting to focal adhesions. We have defined the membrane proximal region of the integrin cytoplasmic domain as the major binding region, although more membrane distal regions are also required for strong binding. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis points to an important electrostatic component to binding. Thermal unfolding experiments show that integrin binding induces conformational changes in the IBS2 module, which we speculate are linked to vinculin and membrane binding.
- SourceAvailable from: Xuefei Tian[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Podocytes are specialized actin-rich epithelial cells that line the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. The interface between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane requires integrins, and defects in either α3 or β1 integrin, or the α3β1 ligand laminin result in nephrotic syndrome in murine models. The large cytoskeletal protein talin1 is not only pivotal for integrin activation, but also directly links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we found that mice lacking talin1 specifically in podocytes display severe proteinuria, foot process effacement, and kidney failure. Loss of talin1 in podocytes caused only a modest reduction in β1 integrin activation, podocyte cell adhesion, and cell spreading; however, the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes was profoundly altered by the loss of talin1. Evaluation of murine models of glomerular injury and patients with nephrotic syndrome revealed that calpain-induced talin1 cleavage in podocytes might promote pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of calpain activity following glomerular injury substantially reduced talin1 cleavage, albuminuria, and foot process effacement. Collectively, these findings indicate that podocyte talin1 is critical for maintaining the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier and provide insight into the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome.The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; · 15.39 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Invadopodia are actin-rich protrusions that degrade the extracellular matrix and are required for stromal invasion, intravasation, and metastasis. The role of the focal adhesion protein talin in regulating these structures is not known. Here, we demonstrate that talin is required for invadopodial matrix degradation and three-dimensional extracellular matrix invasion in metastatic breast cancer cells. The sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE-1) is linked to the cytoskeleton by ezrin/radixin/moesin family proteins and is known to regulate invadopodium-mediated matrix degradation. We show that the talin C terminus binds directly to the moesin band 4.1 ERM (FERM) domain to recruit a moesin-NHE-1 complex to invadopodia. Silencing talin resulted in a decrease in cytosolic pH at invadopodia and blocked cofilin-dependent actin polymerization, leading to impaired invadopodium stability and matrix degradation. Furthermore, talin is required for mammary tumor cell motility, intravasation, and spontaneous lung metastasis in vivo. Thus, our findings provide a novel understanding of how intracellular pH is regulated and a molecular mechanism by which talin enhances tumor cell invasion and metastasis.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2014; · 9.69 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tight regulation of integrin affinity is critical for hemostasis. A final step of integrin activation is talin binding to two sites within the integrin β cytoplasmic domain. Binding of talin to a membrane-distal NPxY sequence facilitates a second, weaker interaction of talin with an integrin membrane-proximal region (MPR) that is critical for integrin activation. To test the functional significance of these distinct interactions on platelet function in vivo, we generated knock-in mice expressing talin1 mutants with impaired capacity to interact with the β3 integrin MPR (L325R) or NPLY sequence (W359A). Both talin1(L325R) and talin1(W359A) mice were protected from experimental thrombosis. Talin1(L325R) mice, but not talin(W359A) mice, exhibited a severe bleeding phenotype. Activation of αIIbβ3 was completely blocked in talin1(L325R) platelets whereas activation was reduced by approximately 50% in talin1(W359A) platelets. Quantitative biochemical measurements detected talin1(W359A) binding to β3 integrin, albeit with 2.9-fold lower affinity than wild type talin1. The rate of αIIbβ3 activation was slower in Talin1(W359A) platelets which consequently delayed aggregation under static conditions and reduced thrombus formation under physiological flow conditions. Together our data indicates that reduction of talin-β3 integrin binding affinity results in decelerated αIIbβ3 integrin activation and protection from arterial thrombosis without pathological bleeding.Blood 02/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor