Premature Mortality From General Medical Illnesses Among Persons With Bipolar Disorder: A Review
ABSTRACT Despite recent evidence that patients with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of premature mortality resulting from general medical disorders, there has been no systematic review of published studies. The authors reviewed the literature to determine whether there is evidence of increased risk of mortality from general medical causes among patients with bipolar spectrum disorders.
MEDLINE was searched from 1959 to 2007 with a focus on bipolar disorder and medical mortality. Published studies in English with more than 100 patients were included.
Seventeen studies were identified involving 331,000 patients with bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, affective disorder severe enough to require inpatient psychiatric care or treatment with lithium, or schizoaffective disorder (that is, bipolar spectrum disorders) meeting the inclusion criteria. Compared with age- and sex-matched control samples without mental illness in the general population, mortality ratios for death from natural causes and from specific general medical conditions, such as cardiovascular, respiratory, cerebrovascular, and endocrine disorders, were significantly higher among patients with bipolar spectrum disorders in most studies. This finding was more consistent in larger studies with more than 2,500 patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. Cumulatively, cardiovascular disorder appeared to be the most consistent cause of excess mortality in larger studies.
The available evidence suggests that bipolar spectrum disorders are associated with increased premature mortality secondary to general medical illnesses. Unhealthy lifestyle, biological factors, adverse pharmacologic effects, and disparities in health care are possible underlying causes for this excess mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To review and complete meta-analysis of studies estimating standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) for all-cause and cause-specific mortalities.Method Cause-specific mortality was grouped into natural and unnatural causes. These subgroups were further divided into circulatory, respiratory, neoplastic and infectious causes, and suicide and other violent deaths. Summary SMRs were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was examined via subgroup analysis and meta-regression.ResultsSystematic searching found 30 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Summary SMR for all-cause mortality = 2.05 (95% CI 1.89–2.23), but heterogeneity was high (I2 = 96.2%). This heterogeneity could not be accounted for by date of publication, cohort size, mid-decade of data collection, population type or geographical region. Unnatural death summary SMR = 7.42 (95% CI 6.43–8.55) and natural death = 1.64 (95% CI 1.47–1.83). Specifically, suicide SMR = 14.44 (95% CI 12.43–16.78), other violent death SMR = 3.68 (95% CI 2.77–4.90), deaths from circulatory disease = 1.73 (95% CI 1.54–1.94), respiratory disease = 2.92 (95% CI 2.00–4.23), infection = 2.25 (95% CI 1.70–3.00) and neoplasm = 1.14 (95% CI 1.10–1.21).Conclusion Despite considerable heterogeneity, all summary SMR estimates and a large majority of individual studies showed elevated mortality in BPAD compared to the general population. This was true for all causes of mortality studied.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/acps.12408 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is characterized by debilitating episodes of depression and mood elevation (mania or hypomania). For most patients, depressive symptoms are more pervasive than mood elevation or mixed symptoms, and thus have been reported in individual studies to impose a greater burden on affected individuals, caregivers, and society. This article reviews and compiles the literature on the prevalence and burden of syndromal as well as subsyndromal presentations of depression in bipolar disorder patients. The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles using the search terms "bipolar disorder," "bipolar depression," "burden," "caregiver burden," "cost," "costs," "economic," "epidemiology," "prevalence," "quality of life," and "suicide." Search results were manually reviewed, and relevant studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Additional references were obtained manually from reviewing the reference lists of selected articles found by computerized search. In aggregate, the findings support the predominance of depressive symptoms compared with mood elevation/mixed symptoms in the course of bipolar illness, and thus an overall greater burden in terms of economic costs, functioning, caregiver burden, and suicide. This review, although comprehensive, provides a study-wise aggregate (rather than a patient-wise meta-analytic) summary of the relevant literature on this topic. In light of its pervasiveness and prevalence, more effective and aggressive treatments for bipolar depression are warranted to mitigate its profound impact upon individuals and society. Such studies could benefit by including metrics not only for mood outcomes, but also for illness burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 169S1:S3-S11. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(14)70003-5 · 3.71 Impact Factor