Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription Mediate Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Vascular Endothelial Morphogenesis

Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 02/2009; 69(4):1668-77. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6385
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The fibroblast growth factors (FGF) play diverse roles in development, wound healing, and angiogenesis. The intracellular signal transduction pathways, which mediate these pleiotropic activities, remain incompletely understood. We show here that the proangiogenic factors FGF2 and FGF8b can activate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) in mouse microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Both FGF2 and FGF8b activate STAT5 and to a lesser extent STAT1, but not STAT3. The FGF2-dependent activation of endothelial STAT5 was confirmed in vivo with the Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay. In tissue samples of human gliomas, a tumor type wherein FGF-induced angiogenesis is important, STAT5 is detected in tumor vessel EC nuclei, consistent with STAT5 activation. By forced expression of constitutively active or dominant-negative mutant STAT5A in mouse brain ECs, we further show that STAT5 activation is both necessary and sufficient for FGF-induced cell migration, invasion, and tube formation, which are key events in vascular endothelial morphogenesis and angiogenesis. In contrast, STAT5 is not required for brain EC mitogenesis. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases Src and Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) both seem to be involved in the activation of STAT5, as their inhibition reduces FGF2- and FGF8b-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and EC tube formation. Constitutively active STAT5A partially restores tube formation in the presence of Src or Jak2 inhibitors. These observations show that FGFs use distinct signaling pathways to induce angiogenic phenotypes. Together, our findings implicate the FGF-Jak2/Src-STAT5 cascade as a critical angiogenic FGF signaling pathway.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase was overexpressed in a variety of cancers and was closely correlated with oncogenic factors. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) was shown to induce apoptosis in many cancer cells. However, the mechanism of TSA on induction of cancer cells apoptosis is poorly understood. This study was designed to characterize the global gene expression profiles before and after treatment of human leukemia cell line Molt-4 with TSA. Flow cytometry, MTT and DNA ladder were used to observe the effect of TSA on the apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Microarray, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the difference of gene and protein expressions of Molt-4 cells after incubation of the cells with TSA. The results showed that TSA could induce Molt-4 apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners but spared PBMCs. Microarray analysis showed that after incubation with TSA for 9 h, 310 genes were upregulated and 313 genes were deregulated. These genes regulate the growth, differentiation and survival of cells. Among these genes, STAT5A was down-regulated by 80.4% and MYC was down-regulated by 77.3%. It was concluded that TSA has definite growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects on Molt-4 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, with weak cytotoxic effects on PBMCs at the same time. The mechanism of TSA selectively inducing apoptosis and inhibiting growth may be ascribed to the changes of pro-proliferation genes and anti-apoptosis genes.
    Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 09/2009; 29(4):445-50. DOI:10.1007/s11596-009-0411-y · 0.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deciphering transcription factor networks from microarray data remains difficult. This study presents a simple method to infer the regulation of transcription factors from microarray data based on well-characterized target genes. We generated a catalog containing transcription factors associated with 2720 target genes and 6401 experimentally validated regulations. When it was available, a distinction between transcriptional activation and inhibition was included for each regulation. Next, we built a tool ( that compares submitted gene lists with target genes in the catalog to detect regulated transcription factors. TFactS was validated with published lists of regulated genes in various models and compared to tools based on in silico promoter analysis. We next analyzed the NCI60 cancer microarray data set and showed the regulation of SOX10, MITF and JUN in melanomas. We then performed microarray experiments comparing gene expression response of human fibroblasts stimulated by different growth factors. TFactS predicted the specific activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription factors by PDGF-BB, which was confirmed experimentally. Our results show that the expression levels of transcription factor target genes constitute a robust signature for transcription factor regulation, and can be efficiently used for microarray data mining.
    Nucleic Acids Research 03/2010; 38(11):e120. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkq149 · 9.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are no effective therapies for disseminated prostate cancer. Constitutive activation of Stat5 in prostate cancer is associated with cancer lesions of high histological grade. We have shown that Stat5 is activated in 61% of distant metastases of clinical prostate cancer. Active Stat5 increased metastases formation of prostate cancer cells in nude mice by 11-fold in an experimental metastases assay. Active Stat5 promoted migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, and induced rearrangement of the microtubule network. Active Stat5 expression was associated with decreased cell surface E-cadherin levels, while heterotypic adhesion of prostate cancer cells to endothelial cells was stimulated by active Stat5. Activation of Stat5 and Stat5-induced binding of prostate cancer cells to endothelial cells were decreased by inhibition of Src but not of Jak2. Gene expression profiling indicated that 21% of Stat5-regulated genes in prostate cancer cells were related to metastases, while 7.9% were related to proliferation and 3.9% to apoptosis. The work presented here provides the first evidence of Stat5 involvement in the induction of metastatic behavior of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Stat5 may provide a therapeutic target protein for disseminated prostate cancer.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 03/2010; 17(2):481-93. DOI:10.1677/ERC-09-0328 · 4.91 Impact Factor


Available from