Article

Arthroscopic-assisted Fluoroscopic Navigation for Retrograde Drilling of a Talar Osteochondral Lesion

Hospital for Special Surgery, 523 East 72nd Street, Suite 514, New York, NY 10021.
Foot & Ankle International (Impact Factor: 1.63). 02/2009; 30(1):70-3. DOI: 10.3113/FAI.2009.0070
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Retrograde drilling of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) is a recommended, but demanding operative approach for revascularization of lesions in stage 1-3 according to Berndt and Harty after failed conservative treatment. The gold standard of intraoperative driller guidance is fluoroscopic control. Limitations are a 2D visualization of a 3D procedure and sometimes limited view of the OCL in fluoroscopy, leading to increased radiation exposure. A new image-free navigation procedure was evaluated for practicability and precision in first clinical applications. In a period of 7 months, retrograde drillings were performed in eight patients (3x femoral condyle, 5x talus) using the new Fluoro-Free navigation procedure without rigidly fixed reference bases. In total, 29 retrograde drillings were performed without any technical problem. The overall mean operating time was 82.1 ± 29.3 min (34.6 ± 6.4 min for the standard arthroscopy and 11.2 ± 1.2 min per drill). Twenty-seven of 29 drillings hit the target with a 100% first-pass accuracy. Two complications during drilling (one navigation specific and one navigation independent) were observed. The paper describes the promising first clinical applications of a new Fluoro-Free navigation procedure for the retrograde drilling of OCLs determined by arthroscopy. The benefit of that navigated drillings with a high rate of first-pass accuracy and no need for radiation exposure in contrast to standard techniques is highlighted.
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    ABSTRACT: Retrograde drilling of symptomatic osteochondral lesions (OCL) is usually controlled by fluoroscopy. Due to the limited visualization of the OCLs in the acquired images and the narrow access to the talar dome, this approach can be demanding. Several navigation procedures have been reported (2D- or 3D- fluoroscopy or intraoperative CT-based) to increase the accuracy and reduce the radiation exposure. We developed a new arthroscopic-controlled navigation procedure which is free of radiation exposure and free of a reference base rigidly fixed to the bone. We hypothesized that this procedure (Fluoro-Free) is at least as precise as the standard 2D-Fluoro navigation (2D-Fluoro). Furthermore, our first clinical experiences are described and discussed. Sixteen drillings per group (standard 2D-Fluoro vs. Fluoro-Free) were performed in artificial sawbones. Times for the different steps of each drilling procedure were recorded and the precision evaluated by measuring the deviation and depth of drilling. The accuracy of the Fluoro-Free navigation was as precise as the standard 2D-Fluoro based navigation (axis deviation of drill tip to the target point: 1.07 ± 0.11 versus 1.14 ± 0.15 mm). Due to the simplified workflow without radiation exposure and fixation of a reference base, the Fluoro-Free procedure was significantly faster (mean procedure time per drilling: 23.7 ± 11.6 versus 165 ± 9 seconds) and easy to use. Its clinical usefulness was demonstrated during three retrograde drillings of a talar OCL in a 16-year-old patient. The Fluoro-Free navigation procedure is a simplified approach for retrograde drilling of OCL in the talus under arthroscopic control without radiation exposure and without the need for fixation of a dynamic reference base to the bone.
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    ABSTRACT: Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OCT) frequently accompanies chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). However, it remains unclear whether concomitant OCT and CLAI should be treated surgically at the same time. The purpose was to evaluate the clinical outcome of simultaneous surgery involving stabilization of CLAI and retrograde drilling for only subchondral bone lesion of the talus. The study was a case series; level of evidence, 4. Between January 2006 and February 2010, 16 feet of 16 patients (5 men, 11 women; mean age 25 years; age range 14-49 years) with CLAI accompanied by only subchondral bone lesion of talus underwent surgical repair or reconstruction of the anterior talofibular ligament and retrograde drilling. Subchondral bone lesion of talus was diagnosed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative arthroscopic investigation. Clinical outcome was measured using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) and a visual analog scale (VAS). Improvement in lesion area was evaluated by assessing the change between preoperative and postoperative MRI findings. Preoperative to postoperative changes in all patients were as follows: mean AOFAS score improved from 73.4 points (range 62-87) to 91.2 points (range 85-100) (p < 0.001); mean VAS score improved from 55.0 points (range 40-80) to 6.5 points (range 0-20) (p < 0.001); and mean lesion area improved from 33.9 mm(2) (range 14.2-59.6) to 11.8 mm(2) (range 4.3-22.1) (p < 0.001). Simultaneous surgery involving lateral ankle stabilization and retrograde drilling under arthroscopic and fluoroscopic guidance is a promising method for treating CLAI accompanied by only subchondral bone lesion of talus.
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