Highly charged swelling mica reduces free and extractable Cu levels in Cu-contaminated soils.
ABSTRACT Smelting of copper (Cu) results in the atmospheric deposition of Cu onto surrounding soils. Excess concentrations of Cu in soils can be absorbed by soil biota to toxic levels or leached into the groundwater, threatening the entire ecosystem. A means to restrict Cu mobility and uptake by plants is to remove it from the aqueous phase by applying an adsorptive material. A synthetic clay (highly charged swelling mica) was tested for its ability to decrease the levels of free and 0.1 M KNO3-extractable Cu in 15 surface soils from three different Cu mining areas in central Chile. The soils contained excessive total Cu levels (112-2790 mg Cu (kg soil)(-1)), while extractable Cu ranged from 0.3 to 22.9 mg Cu L(-1). The mica was applied to each soil at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 2% (w/w). A 2% sodium-montmorillonite treatment and the nonamended soil served as controls. The order of treatment efficacy in reducing extractable Cu and free Cu2+ for low pH soils (<pH 5.5) was: 2% mica > 1% mica > 2% montmorillonite > 0.1% mica. At 120 days, the 2% mica treatment maintained reductions of up to 93% in the free Cu2+ activity and up to 75% in the extractable Cu concentration upon acidification to the original soil pH value. In addition, Cu retention in mica-treated soils was more resistant to acidification than in lime-treated soils. This mica has promise for the remediation of acidic soils with metal contamination at the surface.
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ABSTRACT: Chemical remediation has attracted increasing attention for heavy metal contaminated soils because of its relatively low cost and high efficiency. In this study laboratory incubation and column leaching experiments were conducted to understand the mechanisms of copper (Cu) immobilization by calcium water treatment residue (Ca-WTR) and to estimate the optimal rate for remediating Cu-contaminated soils. The results showed that Ca-WTR amendment significantly raised soil pH and decreased water soluble and exchangeable Cu by 62-90% in the contaminated soils. Most of the bioavailable Cu was converted into more stable Cu fractions, i.e. oxides-bound and residual Cu. The cumulative amount of Cu in the leachate after 10 leaching events was reduced by 80% and 73%, respectively for the two tested soils at the Ca-WTR rate of 20 g kg(-1) for Alfisol and 100 g kg(-1) for Spodosol. These results indicate that Ca-WTR is effective in raising soil pH and converting labile Cu to more stable forms in the contaminated soils. A pH value of 6.5 was found to be critical for lowering Cu availability in the soils. Based on this criterion and pH response curve to Ca-WTR application, the optimal rates of Ca-WTR can be estimated for different Cu-contaminated soils.Journal of hazardous materials 03/2011; 189(3):710-8. · 4.14 Impact Factor
- Biophysical Journal 01/2011; 100(3). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The living ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide was carried out by using organocatalyst to synthesize the molecular weight controlled poly(l-lactide) with an phenylacetylenyl end group (HCCPLLA), then the homopolymerization of HCCPLLA was performed by using two different rhodium catalysts. Low molecular weight poly-PLLA6-1 (Mw,SEC-MALLS=46,700) was synthesized by using Rh(nbd)BPh4 as the catalyst, and higher molecular weight poly-PLLA6-2 (Mw,SEC-MALLS=471,000) was synthesized by using the [Rh(nbd)Cl]2/Et3N catalyst system. Then high molecular weight poly-PLLA20, poly-PLLA29, and poly-PLLA68 were successfully synthesized by using the [Rh(nbd)Cl]2/Et3N catalyst system. The α values of the poly-PLLAs using [Rh(nbd)Cl]2/Et3N catalyst system were all in the range of 0.6–0.8, this means that these polymers possess linear flexible chain. It is concluded that [Rh(nbd)Cl]2/Et3N was more suitable for the synthesis of the cylindrical polymer brush, poly-PLLA with high molecular weight. The analyses of the CD spectra indicated that poly-PLLA possesses a predominantly one-handed helical conformation, temperature and solvents had significant influences on the helical structure of poly-PLLA.European Polymer Journal - EUR POLYM J. 01/2011; 47(10):1923-1930.