Cushing's disease in dogs and humans.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cushing's disease (CD) is a common endocrinological disorder in dogs with an estimated incidence of 1 to 2 cases/1,000 dogs/year. This is in contrast to humans in whom CD is rare. The clinical presentation of CD, however, is highly similar between dogs and humans, with characteristic signs, such as abdominal obesity, weight gain, fatigue, muscle atrophy and skin changes. Canine CD may therefore serve as an animal model for human CD, especially since therapeutic canine hypophysectomy can generate substantial amounts of primary corticotroph adenoma tissue for in vitro research purposes. In a recent study, we found that dopamine (DA) D(2) and somatostatin (SS) receptor subtypes are well expressed in canine corticotroph adenomas, but there are some distinct differences compared with the expression profile observed in human CD. These differences need to be considered when using canine CD as a model to evaluate the efficacy of novel DA/SS compounds for potential use in human CD. CASE REPORT: This case involves an 8-year-old female dog that developed signs of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and polyuria/polydipsia due to an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. The dog underwent curative transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and has remained in complete remission in the 3.5 years since surgery.
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ABSTRACT: An 8-year-old male German longhaired pointer was referred for diabetes insipidus responsive to treatment with desmopressin. The dog had polyuria and polydipsia, exercise intolerance and a dull hair coat. Plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were decreased; plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was slightly elevated and plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) was within the reference range. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneously contrast-enhancing pituitary mass compressing the hypothalamus. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was performed and microscopical examination of the surgical biopsy samples revealed hypophysitis without evidence of pituitary adenoma. The hypophysitis was characterized by marked lymphocytic infiltration of the adenohypophysis that contained a mixed population of neuroendocrine cells expressing GH, ACTH or α-MSH. The lymphocytes were identified as T cells, resulting in a final diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis strongly resembling human primary lymphocytic hypophysitis.Journal of comparative pathology 07/2012; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both spondylosis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are prevalent in humans and are considered distinct entities. Nowadays, the term spondylosis is in the biomedical literature mostly used when also degenerative disc disease is present. In companion animals, many reports on spondylosis, often without intervertebral disc degeneration, are described. The nomenclature and the definitions of both spondylosis and DISH in the biomedical and veterinary literature should be more in line to facilitate comparison. DISH occurs in dogs but has not been described in cats yet. DISH and spondylosis can co-occur in dogs in one animal. Boxers may serve as translational disease models for the elucidation of the gene(s) involved in the (etio)pathogenesis of DISH or serve as a test population for newly developed treatment options.The Veterinary quarterly. 02/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Pituitary surgery generates pituitary tissue for histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biological research. In the last decade, the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas has been extensively studied in humans, and to a lesser degree in dogs, and tumor oncogenesis has been studied in knock-out mice, often by means of quantitative reversed-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). A precondition of such analyses is that so-called reference genes are stably expressed regardless of changes in disease status or treatment. In this study, the expression of six frequently used reference genes, namely, tata box binding protein (tbp), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (ywhaz), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (sdha), and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (gapdh), was studied in pituitary tissue (normal and adenoma) from three species (humans, mice, and dogs). The stability of expression of these reference genes differed between species and between healthy and diseased tissue within one species. Quantitative analysis based on a single reference gene that is assumed to be stably expressed might lead to wrong conclusions. This cross-species analysis clearly emphasizes the need to evaluate the expression stability of reference genes as a standard and integral aspect of study design and data analysis, in order to improve the validity of the conclusions drawn on the basis of quantitative molecular analyses.Molecular Neurobiology 10/2013; · 5.47 Impact Factor