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    ABSTRACT: Beef inside round subprimals were injected with a 200 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution at 5% (wt/wt) to determine its effects on beef steak palatability and quality traits. Alternating subprimals from the right and left sides were selected for injection of CaCl2 or not injected to serve as a control. After 7 d of postmortem storage, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut from each subprimal for consumer evaluation (n = 478) in a retail setting. Three supermarkets with customers varying widely in income were selected as test sites for measuring consumer perceptions of the treated and control steaks and package labeling acceptance. Supermarket, income level, education, and sex were evaluated for their impact on acceptance of calcium-injected beef. Steak flavor and tenderness both were important in determining beef eating quality; 50% of consumers said tenderness was the most important and 40% said flavor was the most important. Consumers visually preferred CaCl2-treated steaks 71% of the time over the control steaks based on package labeling. The CaCl2 injection improved tenderness, juiciness, flavor desirability, and overall palatability ratings by the consumers for inside round steaks and did not cause any off-flavor problems compared with the controls. Therefore, injecting beef with a solution of 200 mM CaCl2 at 5% (wt/wt) can improve retail consumer evaluations of beef steak tenderness and reduce tenderness variation without detrimental effects on other palatability or quality traits.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/1995; 73(8):2308-14. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we value food safety in a nonhypothetical setting - experimental auction markets. First, subjects underestimate the relatively low probabilities of food-borne illness. Second, measures of value are within a relatively fiat range across a wide range of risks, even with repeated market experience and full information on the objective probability and severity of illness, suggesting subjects rely on prior perceptions. Third, marginal willingness to pay decreases as risk increases, suggesting that the perceived quality of new information can affect the weight the individuals place on the information. Finally, pathogen-specific values seem to act as surrogates for general food safety preferences.
    American Journal of Agricultural Economics 03/1995; 77(1). DOI:10.2307/1243887 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper tests the conjecture that the divergence of willingness to pay and willingness to accept for identical goods is driven by the degree of substitution between goods. In contrast to well-known results for market goods with close substitutes (i.e., candy bars and coffee mugs), the authors' results indicate a convergence of willingness-to-pay and willingness-to-accept measures of value. However, for a nonmarket good with imperfect substitutes (i.e., reduced health risk), the divergence of willingness-to-pay and willingness-to-accept value measures is persistent, even with repeated market participation and full information on the nature of the good. Copyright 1994 by American Economic Association.
    American Economic Review 02/1994; 84(1):255-70. · 2.69 Impact Factor

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