Prevalence and Incidence of New Meniscus and Cartilage Injuries After a Nonoperative Treatment Algorithm for ACL Tears in Skeletally Immature Children A Prospective MRI Study

Oslo University Hospital, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 06/2013; 41(8). DOI: 10.1177/0363546513491092
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND:The increased risk of long-term osteoarthritis from concomitant injuries to the menisci or cartilage after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in adults is well established. In skeletally immature children, ACL reconstruction is often recommended to reduce the risk of new intra-articular injuries. However, the prevalence and incidence of new injuries after nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries in children are unknown. PURPOSE:To prospectively investigate the incidence of new injuries to the menisci and joint cartilage in nonoperatively treated, skeletally immature children with a known ACL injury by use of bilateral 3.0-T MRI. STUDY DESIGN:Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS:Forty skeletally immature children with a ruptured ACL (41 knees) followed a nonoperative treatment algorithm and were evaluated with bilateral 3.0-T MRI on 2 occasions (MRI1 and MRI2). The intra-articular structures were analyzed by 2 independent MRI radiologists. Monitoring of participation in physical activities was accomplished through a monthly online activity survey. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were extracted from the scoring forms and compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS:Fourteen girls (35%) and 26 boys (65%) with a mean age of 11.0 ± 1.4 years at the time of injury were included. Time from injury to the final follow-up was 3.8 ± 1.4 years. Eighty-eight percent of the ACL-deficient children confirmed monthly participation in pivoting sports and/or in physical education classes in school. The prevalence of meniscus injuries in the 28 nonreconstructed knees was 28.5% at MRI1 and MRI2, and the incidence of new meniscus and cartilage injuries in the nonreconstructed knees from MRI1 to MRI2 was 3.6%. Thirteen children underwent ACL reconstruction, with a prevalence of meniscus procedures of 46.2%. The incidence of new meniscus injuries from diagnostic MRI to final follow-up was 19.5%. Surgical treatments for meniscus injuries were performed in 8 of the 41 knees. CONCLUSION:The incidence of new injuries to menisci and joint cartilage was low between MRI1 and MRI2 in the 28 nonreconstructed knees. Thirty-two percent of the knees required ACL reconstruction, and 19.5% required meniscus surgeries during the 3.8 ± 1.4 years of follow-up from injury. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term knee health in these children.

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    • "Full list of author information is available at the end of the article On the one hand, nonoperative treatment has shown to be successful in some patients (Woods and O'Connor 2004; Moksnes et al. 2013), but the reasons for this are poorly understood (Funahashi et al. 2014). Furthermore, a strong association between the delay of surgery and the occurrence of meniscus and cartilage lesions strongly suggests that a nonoperative treatment may be detrimental to the intra-articular soft tissues. "
    12/2015; 2(1). DOI:10.1186/s40634-015-0027-z
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to the treatment of avulsion lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) the management of intrasubstance ACL tears in the skeletally immature patient remains controversial. Prospective studies could show that conservative treatment results in severe instability with concomitant intraarticular damage and poor function of the knee. Reconstruction of a torn ACL always carries the risk of damaging the open growth plates; with consecutively affecting the longitudinal or axial growth of the lower extremity either on the femoral or the tibial side. Thus, several surgical procedures are available to prevent adverse events mentioned above. The purpose of this study is to review the recent literature regarding the treatment algorithm for ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients. This review will (1) investigate the indications for ACL surgery in children; (2) determine if a surgical procedure is clinically superior in skeletally immature patients; and (3) correlate the adverse events with the surgical technique.
    European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 12/2013; 23(6). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1363162 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:There have been no population-based studies to evaluate the rate of pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. PURPOSE:The primary aim of the current study was to determine the yearly rate of ACL reconstruction over the past 20 years in New York State. Secondary aims were to determine the age distribution for ACL reconstruction and determine whether patient demographic and socioeconomic factors were associated with ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN:Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS:The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database contains a census of all hospital admissions and ambulatory surgery in New York State. This database was used to identify pediatric ACL reconstructions between 1990 and 2009; ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification) and CPT-4 (Current Procedural Terminology, 4th Revision) codes were used to identify reconstructions. Patient sex, age, race, family income, education, and insurance status were assessed. RESULTS:The rate of ACL reconstruction per 100,000 population aged 3 to 20 years has been increasing steadily over the past 20 years, from 17.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.4-18.9) in 1990 to 50.9 (95% CI, 48.8-53.0) in 2009. The peak age for ACL reconstruction in 2009 was 17 years, at a rate of 176.7 (95% CI, 160.9-192.5). In 2009, the youngest age at which ACL reconstruction was performed was 9 years. The rate of ACL reconstruction in male patients was about 15% higher than in females, and ACL reconstruction was 6-fold more common in patients with private health insurance compared with those enrolled in Medicaid. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to quantify the increasing rate of ACL reconstructions in the skeletally immature. Only ACL reconstructions were assessed, and it is possible that some ACL tears in children are not diagnosed or are treated nonoperatively. The rate of ACL tears in New York State is likely higher than the rate of reconstructions reported in this study.Significance:This study quantifies the increasing rate of ACL reconstruction in the skeletally immature and suggests that there may be some disparities in care based on insurance status.
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2014; 42(3). DOI:10.1177/0363546513518412 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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