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Echogenic Uterine Fluid Collection as an Unusual Presentation of Endometrial Squamous Metaplasia

DOI: 10.1089/gyn.2012.0103

ABSTRACT Background: The optimal management of intrauterine fluid accumulation in postmenopausal women with cer-vical stenosis is currently debatable. Diagnostic challenge still remains, because of the low accuracy of sono-graphic histologic prediction. Case: In the case described, an asymptomatic postmenopausal woman was found to have an echogenic endometrial fluid collection on pelvic ultrasound, suspicious for uterine malignancy. Results: After a failed attempt at endometrial sampling secondary to cervical stenosis, the patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The fluid-filled endometrial cavity was found to have extensive benign squamous differentiation. Conclusions: Extensive endometrial squamous metaplasia should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis when postmenopausal women are found to have echogenic intrauterine fluid collections on ultrasound. (J GYNECOL SURG 29:148)

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    ABSTRACT: To assess possible endometrial pathology and other factors influencing the presence of uterine cavity fluid in postmenopausal women. A random sample of 559 asymptomatic postmenopausal women, recruited from the total population, were examined by transvaginal sonography (TVS) for the presence of uterine cavity fluid. Women with uterine cavity fluid who had an endometrial thickness of > or = 8 mm (including fluid) were admitted for hysteroscopy and a dilatation and curettage (D & C), and those with <8 mm underwent a new TVS examination one year later. A medical history, including details regarding previous minor gynecological surgery, was taken from the women and from an age-matched control-group of women from the same population. Uterine cavity fluid was found in 8.9% (50/559) of the women. In four women with an endometrium measuring > or = 8 mm, curettage revealed polyps in three women and atrophy with a pyometra in one woman. At the one-year follow-up, 22 women who originally had an endometrial thickness<8 mm had an endometrial thickness of<5 mm; 11 women had no cavity fluid and in the remaining 11 the cavity fluid had decreased. In 17 women, endometrial thickness measured > or = 5 mm and subsequent histology showed 11 endometrial biopsies with atrophy, four endometrial polyps and two cervical polyps. The prevalence of uterine cavity fluid increased with increasing age (p<0.0001) and was increased in smokers (p<0.013) but was unaltered by the presence or absence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). There were no indications that uterine cavity fluid was associated with malignancy. The prevalence of uterine cavity fluid increased with increasing age and was higher in smokers. We could not demonstrate an increased prevalence of fluid in HRT-users.
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    ABSTRACT: Seventeen cases of intrauterine fluid collections in postmenopausal women demonstrated by sonography were collected. Of the 17, 16 (94%) were found to have active carcinoma involving the uterine corpus or cervix. Eleven (65%) had cervical stenosis due to previous surgery, radiation therapy, or carcinoma. The fluid collected was pus, blood, or serous or serosanguineous fluid, and tumor nearly filled the dilated uterine cavity in some cases. The sonographic demonstration of a distended uterine cavity in a postmenopausal woman suggests carcinoma involving the uterus.
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    ABSTRACT: To report 30 postmenopausal women and the thickness of the tissue surrounding an endometrial fluid collection seen on vaginal probe ultrasound. During routine ultrasound-enhanced bimanual examination, nine postmenopausal women with unremarkable palpatory findings and no history of bleeding were found to have endometrial fluid collections. The patients were 9-24 years postmenopausal. All underwent prompt endometrial sampling. Each woman had some degree of cervical stenosis as judged by the operator. At curettage, all had scant tissue, which was reported by the pathologist as "inactive endometrium." Ultrasound scans on each patient were rereviewed, and it was found that the endometrium surrounding the fluid was uniformly 3 mm thick or less. Subsequently, 21 additional patients with small endometrial fluid collections have been seen. Eighteen of these had thin endometrium peripherally and were followed conservatively for 6-26 months. Six cases resolved and 12 remained unchanged. Three patients had a thickened heterogeneous endometrium peripheral to the fluid collection. In one, D&C was unsuccessful in two attempts because of cervical stenosis, and hysterectomy was performed. A 15-mm endometrial polyp was found. Two other patients with thickened endometrium surrounding the fluid had D&C, and hysteroscopy revealed simple hyperplasia without atypia. CONCLUSIONS. Normal atrophic postmenopausal endometrium in association with cervical stenosis can produce endometrial fluid collections, seen easily on vaginal probe ultrasound. If the endometrial tissue surrounding the fluid is thin (3 mm or less), the endometrium is invariably inactive and sampling is not necessary. If the peripheral endometrium is thicker than 3 mm, sampling is mandatory because the tissue cannot be expected to be invariably inactive and sampling is not necessary. If the peripheral endometrium is thicker than 3 mm, sampling is mandatory because the tissue cannot be expected to be inactive. Thus, the presence or amount of fluid is not as important as the thickness and character of the surrounding tissue.
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