Emergency department patient acceptance of opt-in, universal, rapid HIV screening

Department of Emergency Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
Public Health Reports (Impact Factor: 1.55). 01/2008; 123 Suppl 3:27-40.
Source: PubMed


We assessed emergency department (ED) patient acceptance of opt-in, rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening and identified demographic characteristics and HIV testing-history factors associated with acceptance of screening.
A random sample of 18- to 55-year-old ED patients was offered rapid HIV screening. Patient acceptance or decline of screening and the reasons for acceptance or decline were analyzed with multivariable regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the logistic regression models.
Of the 2,099 participants, 39.3% accepted HIV screening. In a multinomial regression model, participants who were never married/not partnered, did not have private health insurance, and had 12 or fewer years of education were more likely to be screened due to concern about a possible HIV exposure. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the odds of accepting screening were greater among those who were younger than 40-years-old (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.32, 2.00), nonwhite (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.04, 1.58), not married (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.44, 2.28), lacking private health insurance (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.13, 1.74), and who had 12 or fewer years of education (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.16, 1.75). Despite use of a standardized protocol, patient acceptance of screening varied by which research assistant asked them to be screened. Patients not previously tested for HIV who were white, married, and 45 years or older and who had private health insurance were more likely to decline HIV screening.
In an opt-in, universal, ED HIV screening program, patient acceptance of screening varied by demography, which indicates that the impact of such screening programs will not be universal. Future research will need to determine methods of increasing uptake of ED HIV screening that transcend patient demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and motivation for testing.

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    • "Similar to other studies, the most common reason cited for declining HIV test was the lack of perception of being at-risk for HIV infection [36,39,42–45]. Other studies suggest that as a result of years of targeted screening programs for HIV, a perception has developed within the population that HIV testing is only necessary for those in certain “at-risk” groups [42,44,46]. However, as the demographics of the HIV epidemic have shifted, risk-based testing may be decreasing in effectiveness. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Argentinean AIDS Program estimates that 110,000 persons are living with HIV/AIDS in Argentina. Of those, approximately 40% are unaware of their status, and 30% are diagnosed in advanced stages of immunosuppression. Though studies show that universal HIV screening is cost-effective in settings with HIV prevalence greater than 0.1%, in Argentina, with the exception of antenatal care, HIV testing is always client-initiated. We performed a pilot study to assess the acceptability of a universal HIV screening program among inpatients of an urban public hospital in Buenos Aires. Over a six-month period, all eligible adult patients admitted to the internal medicine ward were offered HIV testing. Demographics, uptake rates, reasons for refusal and new HIV diagnoses were analyzed. Of the 350 admissions during this period, 249 were eligible and subsequently enrolled. The enrolled population was relatively old compared to the general population, was balanced on gender, and did not report traditional high risk factors for HIV infection. Only 88 (39%) reported prior HIV testing. One hundred and ninety (76%) patients accepted HIV testing. In multivariable analysis only younger age (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.003-1.05) was independently associated with test uptake. Three new HIV diagnoses were made (undiagnosed HIV prevalence: 1.58%); none belonged to a most-at-risk population. Our findings suggest that universal HIV screening in this setting is acceptable and potentially effective in identifying undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals. If confirmed in a larger study, our findings may inform changes in the Argentinean HIV testing policy.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69517. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069517 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Participants were interviewed by the RA about their demographic characteristics (age; race/ethnicity; partner status; insurance status; and education level) and history of ever being tested for HIV through blood donation, screening, or diagnostic testing; and time elapsed since blood donation or HIV testing. These demographic and HIV testing history questions were developed for and used in previous studies [34,62,70]. Participants completed self-administered confidential questionnaires regarding the quantity and frequency of their alcohol use, severity of their alcohol use, and sexual risk for HIV on tablet computers using the Questionnaire Development System (QDS) (NOVA Research Company, Bethesda, MD). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Emergency department (ED) patients comprise a high-risk population for alcohol misuse and sexual risk for HIV. In order to design future interventions to increase HIV screening uptake, we examined the interrelationship among alcohol misuse, sexual risk for HIV and HIV screening uptake among these patients. Methods A random sample of 18-64-year-old English- or Spanish-speaking patients at two EDs during July-August 2009 completed a self-administered questionnaire about their alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the HIV Sexual Risk Questionnaire. Study participants were offered a rapid HIV test after completing the questionnaires. Binging (≥ five drinks/occasion for men, ≥ four drinks for women) was assessed and sex-specific alcohol misuse severity levels (low-risk, harmful, hazardous, dependence) were calculated using AUDIT scores. Analyses were limited to participants who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between HIV screening uptake and (1) alcohol misuse, (2) sexual risk for HIV, and (3) the intersection of HIV sexual risk and alcohol misuse. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. All models were adjusted for patient demographic characteristics and separate models for men and women were constructed. Results Of 524 participants (55.0% female), 58.4% identified as white, non-Hispanic, and 72% reported previous HIV testing. Approximately 75% of participants reported drinking alcohol within the past 30 days and 74.5% of men and 59.6% of women reported binge drinking. A relationship was found between reported sexual risk for HIV and alcohol use among men (AOR 3.31 [CI 1.51-7.24]) and women (AOR 2.78 [CI 1.48-5.23]). Women who reported binge drinking were more likely to have higher reported sexual risk for HIV (AOR 2.55 [CI 1.40-4.64]) compared to women who do not report binge drinking. HIV screening uptake was not higher among those with greater alcohol misuse and sexual risk among men or women. Conclusions The apparent disconnection between HIV screening uptake and alcohol misuse and sexual risk for HIV among ED patients in this study is concerning. Brief interventions emphasizing these associations should be evaluated to reduce alcohol misuse and sexual risk and increase the uptake of ED HIV screening.
    BMC Emergency Medicine 05/2013; 13(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1471-227X-13-9
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    • "Previous efforts to increase HIV testing have focused on relatively high risk populations, e.g. patients presenting to Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics and Emergency Departments in urban safety net hospitals [2] [8] [9]. "
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