Carbon dioxide monitoring during long-term noninvasive respiratory support in children
ABSTRACT Routine monitoring of noninvasive respiratory support relies on nocturnal pulse oximetry and daytime arterial blood gases, without systematic nocturnal carbon dioxide recording. The aim of the study was to assess if overnight pulse oximetry and daytime blood gases are sufficiently accurate to detect nocturnal hypoventilation in children receiving long-term noninvasive respiratory support.
Pulse oximetry and carbon dioxide pressure measured by capillary arterialized blood gases and a combined transcutaneous carbon dioxide and pulse oximetry (PtcCO(2)/SpO(2)) monitor were compared in 65 patients (asthma, n = 16, recurrent bronchitis, n = 8, lung infection, n = 8, cystic fibrosis, n = 15, interstitial lung disease, n = 6, neuromuscular disease, n = 12). Daytime capillary arterialized blood gases and nocturnal recording of pulse oximetry and carbon dioxide by means of a combined PtcCO(2)/SpO(2) monitor were performed in 50 other patients receiving nocturnal noninvasive respiratory support at home.
A correlation was observed between pulse oximetry (r = 0.832, P < 0.0001) and carbon dioxide pressure (r = 0.644, P < 0.0001) measured by capillary arterialized blood gases and the combined PtcCO(2)/SpO(2) monitor. Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) on long-term noninvasive respiratory support presented nocturnal hypercapnia, defined by a PtcCO(2) value >50 mmHg, without nocturnal hypoxemia. Daytime capillary arterialized carbon dioxide levels were normal in 18 of these 21 patients.
Nocturnal hypercapnia may occur in children receiving nocturnal noninvasive respiratory support at home. Nocturnal pulse oximetry and daytime arterial blood gases are not sufficiently accurate to diagnose nocturnal hypercapnia, underlying the importance of a systematic carbon dioxide monitoring in children receiving noninvasive respiratory support.
Article: Hypoventilation syndromes.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In patients with impaired inspiratory muscle function or altered respiratory system mechanics, an imbalance between load and capacity can arise. The ventilatory control system normally compensates for this by increasing drive to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation levels, thereby keeping arterial CO2 within its normal range. To reduce work of breathing, a pattern of reduced tidal volume and increased respiratory rate occurs. This pattern itself may eventually reduce effective ventilation by increasing dead space ventilation. However, the impact of sleep on breathing and its role in the development of diurnal respiratory failure is often overlooked in this process. Sleep not only reduces respiratory drive, but also diminishes chemoresponsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia creating an environment where significant alterations in oxygenation and CO2 can occur. Acute increases in CO2 load especially during rapid eye movement sleep can initiate the process of bicarbonate retention which further depresses ventilatory responsiveness to CO2. Treatment of hypoventilation needs to be directed toward factors underlying its development. Nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure therapy is the most widely used and reliable strategy currently available to manage hypoventilation syndromes. Although this may not consistently alter respiratory muscle strength or the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, it does appear to reset chemosensitivity by reducing bicarbonate, resulting in a more appropriate ventilatory response to CO2 during wakefulness. Not only is diurnal hypoventilation reduced with noninvasive ventilation, but quality of life, functional capacity and survival are also improved. However, close attention to how therapy is set up and used are key factors in achieving clinical benefits. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4: 1639-1676, 2014.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to assess within a feasibility study the correlation and agreement of transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2) monitoring with venous carbon dioxide (PvCO2) in infants with bronchiolitis in the emergency room (ER) and pediatric department. Sixty infants (aged 3.6 ± 3.3 months) admitted to our ER with bronchiolitis were included. PtcCO2 measurements (SenTec Digital Monitoring System) collected prospectively were compared with simultaneous PvCO2 drawn for patient care. Analysis included 100 measurements. The correlation of PtcCO2 and PvCO2 (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) was good, and the agreement (mean difference ± standard deviation of the differences 1.9 ± 7.0 mmHg) was adequate; average PtcCO2 was slightly lower than PvCO2. Changes in PtcCO2 and PvCO2 for consecutive measurements within each patient correlated (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). The level of PtcCO2 correlated with disease severity clinical score (p < 0.001). Conclusions: PtcCO2 monitoring was feasible in the ER and pediatric department and was found to have a good correlation and adequate agreement with PvCO2 in infants with bronchiolitis. Because the standard deviation of the differences was relatively high, though comparable to the literature, we suggest that PtcCO2 should not replace blood gas but rather serve as a complementary tool for trending and for real-time continuous assessment of the CO2 levels.European Journal of Pediatrics 08/2014; 174(3). DOI:10.1007/s00431-014-2407-2 · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Data are scarce on respiratory events during sleep for children treated at home with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The present study aimed to characterize the respiratory events with CPAP during sleep and to analyze their clinical consequences. Patients/Methods: Consecutive polygraphies (PG) performed on stable children treated with CPAP were analyzed and scored using SomnoNIV Group definitions. For every respiratory event, the presence of a 3% oxygen desaturation and/or an autonomic arousal was systematically searched. Nocturnal gas exchange was assessed using summary data of oximetry and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure recordings. Results: Twenty-nine consecutive polygraphies, performed on 26 children (mean age 7.8 +/- 6.2 years, mean CPAP use 10.6 +/- 14.4 months), were analyzed. The index of total respiratory events was low (median value 1.4/h, range 0-34). The mean number of different types of respiratory events per PG was 2 +/- 1 (range 0-4), with always a predominant event. Partial or total upper airway obstruction without a decrease in ventilatory drive was the most frequent event and was the most frequently associated with an oxygen desaturation (in 30% of the events) and an autonomic arousal (in 55% of the events). Weak correlations were observed between nocturnal oximetry and PG results. Conclusions: The index of respiratory events during CPAP treatment for stable children is low. As these events may be associated with an oxygen desaturation or an autonomic arousal, and as nocturnal gas exchange cannot predict PG results, a systematic sleep study seems justified for the routine follow-up of children treated with CPAP.Sleep Medicine 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.07.030 · 3.10 Impact Factor