HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, ageing, and non-AIDS related morbidity
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ABSTRACT: In regression models for categorical data a linear model is typically related to the response variables via a transformation of probabilities called the link function. We introduce an approach based on two link functions for binary data named log-mean (LM) and log-mean linear (LML), respectively. The choice of the link function plays a key role for the interpretation of the model, and our approach is especially appealing in terms of interpretation of the effects of covariates on the interactions of responses. Similarly to Poisson regression, the LM and LML regression coefficients of single outcomes are log-relative risks, and we show that the relative risk interpretation is maintained also in the regressions of the interactions of responses. Furthermore, certain collections of zero LML regression coefficients imply that the relative risks for joint responses factorize with respect to the corresponding relative risks for marginal responses. This work is motivated by the analysis of a dataset obtained from a case-control study aimed to investigate the effect of HIV-infection on multimorbidity, that is simultaneous presence of two or more noninfectious commorbidities in one patient.
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ABSTRACT: Background. There are conflicting data on the prevalence of coronary events and the quality of the management of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in HIV-infected patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective descriptive study to determine the prevalence of coronary events and to evaluate the management of CVRF in a Mediterranean cohort of 3760 HIV-1-infected patients from April 1983 through June 2011. Results. We identified 81 patients with a history of a coronary event (prevalence 2.15%); 83% of them suffered an acute myocardial infarction. At the time of the coronary event, CVRF were highly prevalent (60.5% hypertension, 48% dyslipidemia, and 16% diabetes mellitus). Other CVRF, such as smoking, hypertension, lack of exercise, and body mass index, were not routinely assessed. After the coronary event, a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.025) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.004) was observed. However, the percentage of patients who maintained LDL-cholesterol > 100 mg/dL remained stable (from 46% to 41%, P = 0.103). Patients using protease inhibitors associated with a favorable lipid profile increased over time (P = 0.028). Conclusions. The prevalence of coronary events in our cohort is low. CVRF prevalence is high and their management is far from optimal. More aggressive interventions should be implemented to diminish cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:823058. DOI:10.1155/2014/823058 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite phenomenal advances in AIDS therapy transforming the disease into a chronic illness for most patients, a routine cure for HIV infections remains a distant goal. However, a recent example of HIV eradication in a patient who had received CCR5-negative bone marrow cells after full-body irradiation has fuelled new hopes for a cure for AIDS. Here, we review new HIV treatment strategies that use sophisticated genome engineering to target HIV infections. These approaches offer new ways to tackle the infection, and alone or in conjunction with already established treatments, promise to transform HIV into a curable disease.Antiviral research 12/2012; 97(2). DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.12.017 · 3.43 Impact Factor