Retroendocytosis pathway of ABCA1/apoA-I contributes to HDL formation.
ABSTRACT ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates transfer of cellular free cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), an extracellular acceptor in plasma, to form high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It is currently unknown to what extent ABCA1 endocytosis and recycling contribute to the HDL formation. To address this issue, we expressed human ABCA1 constructs with either an extracellular HA tag or an intracellular GFP tag in cells, and used this system to characterize endocytosis and recycling of ABCA1 and apoA-I. Under basal conditions, ABCA1 and apoA-I are endocytosed via a clathrin- and Rab5-mediated pathway and recycled rapidly back to the cell surface, at least in part via a Rab4-mediated route; approximately 30% of the endocytosed ABCA1 is recycled back to the cell surface. When receptor-mediated endocytosis is inhibited, the level of ABCA1 at the cell surface increases and apoA-I internalization is blocked. Under these conditions, apoA-I mediated cholesterol efflux from cells that have accumulated lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is decreased, whereas efflux from cells without excess cholesterol is increased. These results suggest that the retroendocytosis pathway of ABCA1/apoA-I contributes to HDL formation when excess lipoprotein-derived cholesterol has accumulated in cells.
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ABSTRACT: We have previously established that the ABCA1 transporter, which plays a critical role in the lipidation of extracellular apolipoprotein acceptors, traffics between late endocytic vesicles and the cell surface (Neufeld, E. B., Remaley, A. T., Demosky, S. J., Jr., Stonik, J. A., Cooney, A. M., Comly, M., Dwyer, N. K., Zhang, M., Blanchette-Mackie, J., Santamarina-Fojo, S., and Brewer, H. B., Jr. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 27584-27590). The present study provides evidence that ABCA1 in late endocytic vesicles plays a role in cellular lipid efflux. Late endocytic trafficking was defective in Tangier disease fibroblasts that lack functional ABCA1. Consistent with a late endocytic protein trafficking defect, the hydrophobic amine U18666A retained NPC1 in abnormally tubulated, cholesterol-poor, Tangier disease late endosomes, rather than cholesterol-laden lysosomes, as in wild type fibroblasts. Consistent with a lipid trafficking defect, Tangier disease late endocytic vesicles accumulated both cholesterol and sphingomyelin and were immobilized in a perinuclear localization. The excess cholesterol in Tangier disease late endocytic vesicles retained massive amounts of NPC1, which traffics lysosomal cholesterol to other cellular sites. Exogenous apoA-I abrogated the cholesterol-induced retention of NPC1 in wild type but not in Tangier disease late endosomes. Adenovirally mediated ABCA1-GFP expression in Tangier disease fibroblasts corrected the late endocytic trafficking defects and restored apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux. ABCA1-GFP expression in wild type fibroblasts also reduced late endosome-associated NPC1, induced a marked uptake of fluorescent apoA-I into ABCA1-GFP-containing endosomes (that shuttled between late endosomes and the cell surface), and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux. The combined results of this study suggest that ABCA1 converts pools of late endocytic lipids that retain NPC1 to pools that can associate with endocytosed apoA-I, and be released from the cell as nascent high density lipoprotein.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(15):15571-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously have described the cAMP-mediated induction of cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from the murine macrophage RAW264 cell line to lipid-free apolipoprotein acceptors. This induction of cholesterol efflux is associated with increased binding and association of apolipoprotein to the cells. In the present study, using primarily apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) as the acceptor, cAMP-dependent cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein acceptors was associated with apoAI binding to coated pits, cellular uptake, and resecretion. After cell association and washing, 58% of the apoAI was resecreted during a 90-min chase period. In addition, after apoAI uptake and washing, cholesterol efflux was observed during a chase period without additional acceptors. Cholesterol efflux was partially blocked by chlorpromazine and hypertonic media, two inhibitors of coated pit endocytosis. Cholesterol efflux to apoAI was found to depend on extracellular calcium. By temporally separating the cAMP induction phase from the apoAI chase phase, calcium was found to be required during the apoAI chase phase rather than during the cAMP induction period. In the absence of calcium the 8-Br-cAMP-mediated induction of apoAI binding was maintained, but the specific apoAI cellular association was inhibited. The data are consistent with a model for cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins that involves a calcium-dependent endocytic pathway, followed by recycling and the subsequent release of the nascent lipoprotein particle from the cell.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1999; 96(20):11358-63. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) mediates the release of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid to form high density lipoprotein. Functions of ABCA1 are highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and the synthesized ABCA1 protein turns over rapidly with a half-life of 1-2 h. To examine whether the functions of ABCA1 are modulated by associated proteins, a yeast two-hybrid library was screened with the C-terminal 120 amino acids of ABCA1. Two PDZ (PSD95-Discs large-ZO1) proteins, alpha1-syntrophin and Lin7, were found to interact with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation revealed that alpha1-syntrophin interacted with ABCA1 strongly and that the interaction was via the C-terminal three amino acids SYV of ABCA1. Co-expression of alpha1-syntrophin in human embryonic kidney 293 cells retarded degradation of ABCA1 and made the half-life of ABCA1 five times longer than in the cells not expressing alpha1-syntrophin. This effect is not common among PDZ-containing proteins interacting with ABCA1, because Lin7, which was also found to interact with the C terminus region of ABCA1, did not have a significant effect on the half-life of ABCA1. Co-expression of alpha1-syntrophin significantly increased the apoA-I-mediated release of cholesterol. ABCA1 was co-immunoprecipitated with alpha1-syntrophin from mouse brain. These results suggest that alpha1-syntrophin is involved in intracellular signaling, which determines the stability of ABCA1 and modulates cellular cholesterol release.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(15):15091-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor