Efficacy of inpatient treatment in severely malnourished anorexia nervosa patients.
ABSTRACT Our aim is to present clinical results achieved with an intensive treatment programme for severe anorexia nervosa (AN) patients at risk of severe disability or death. Aims of the treatment are to remove life threatening conditions, physical and nutritional rehabilitation, and psychological and relational rehabilitation.
We present an observational retrospective study of a cohort of 99 consecutive patients affected by severe AN [according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)] and a body mass index (BMI) <or=13.5 kg/m2 treated by a multidisciplinary comprehensive medical, nutritional, psychological treatment. Intensive treatment (inpatient day and night and day hospital care) of variable length, with resort to enteral nutrition if needed, ends by achieving a BMI of at least 18 kg/m2. Outpatient care phase follows. Main goals were the recovery of BMI and the ability to maintain it.
Ninety-nine patients affected by severe Protein- Energy-Malnutritrion (PEM) due to AN were eligible in the study. Mean BMI was 12.5+/-0.9 kg/m2, mean age 21.9+/-8.6 yrs. Of 99 patients, 75 (75.5%) completed the planned treatment (completer subgroup). Eighteen patients prematurely interrupted their treatment before achieving complete weight restoration (dropout subgroup); on average they were older and ill for a longer time before admission. Six patients asked to be transferred to other eating disorder units closer to their towns. Seventy-five completer AN patients continued to undergo intensive inpatient treatment till the achievement of BMI 18.3+/-0.8 kg/m2 and then they have been in follow-up outpatient for a mean period of 17.4+/-1.6 months with an average extra increase of their BMI until to 19.1+/-1.6 kg/m2. In 32 patients with a more severe malnutrition we had to resort to nasogastric enteral feeding for 4.4+/-2.5 months, with a mean caloric supply of 1375+/-211 Kcal until the patients were no longer at life risk and they started to co-operate to treatment, increasing oral food amounts.
Our results seem to provide strong support for using a highly structured program for treating patients with severe AN, including inpatient care and multidisciplinary medical and psychological teams specialized in eating disorder treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Weight restoration is crucial for successful treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). Without it, patients may face serious or even fatal complications of severe starvation. Renutrition should take into account clinical characteristics unique to these patients, such as gastroparesis and fear of gaining body weight. The efficacy of tube feeding and home-tube feeding (Home-TF) has been suggested in AN and proven in bulimia nervosa (BN). TF and home-TF allow a better body weight gain (mainly fat-free mass) in AN patients and a strong decrease in the frequency and the intensity of binge-eating/purging episodes at relatively short-term (1 year) in BN patients. In AN, home-TF does not increase anxiety, depression, or worsen the eating behavior. In BN patients, home-TF decreases anxiety and depressive state and improves the quality of life. The goal of home-TF is not to cure the patients, but only to avoid serious malnutrition and its complications and to insure a better investment of the patients for their psychotherapy. Home-TF must be associated with psychotherapy, namely cognitive behavioural therapy and family therapy in adolescents. If the fear of gaining body weight is too high, the risk of failure of home-TF, because of poor compliance, is increasing. In any case, the aims and the goals of home-TF should be extensively explained.Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme 12/2013; 27(4):244–248. DOI:10.1016/j.nupar.2013.05.002 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clear evidence based guidelines on the best and safest method of achieving and maintaining normal body weight during inpatient treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are currently not available. Oral feeding with food alone, high-energy liquid supplements, nasogastric feeding and parenteral nutrition all have the potential to achieve weight gain in the treatment of AN but the advantages and disadvantages of each method have not been comprehensively evaluated. A literature search was undertaken to identify papers describing feeding methods used during inpatient treatment of AN. The selection criteria searched for papers that described the feeding method; and reported weight change variables such as admission and discharge weight in kilograms, or Body Mass Index; or weight change over the course of inpatient treatment.International Journal of Eating Disorders 09/2013; 1:36. DOI:10.1186/2050-2974-1-36 · 3.03 Impact Factor
Revista medica de Chile 01/2012; 140(1):98-107. DOI:10.4067/S0034-98872012000100015 · 0.37 Impact Factor