Variants in hormone-related genes and the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones: a population-based study in China.
ABSTRACT Biliary tract cancers, encompassing gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers, are uncommon but often fatal malignancies. Hormone-related factors, including parity, oral contraceptive use, obesity, and gallstones, have been implicated in the etiology of these cancers. To further clarify the role of hormones in biliary tract cancers and biliary stones, we genotyped 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine genes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, metabolism and transport in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. This study included subjects who completed an interview and provided blood, which totaled 411 biliary tract cancer and 893 biliary stone patients and 786 healthy Shanghai residents. The CYP1A1 IVS1 + 606 (rs2606345) T allele was associated with gallbladder [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-3.0] and bile duct cancers (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.1), whereas the CYP1A1 Ex7 + 131 (rs1048943) G allele was associated with ampulla of Vater cancer (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.5-5.4). After taking into account multiple comparisons for SNPs within each gene, CYP1A1 was significantly associated with gallbladder (P = 0.004) and ampulla of Vater cancers (P = 0.01), but borderline with bile duct cancer (P = 0.06). The effect of CYP1A1 IVS1 + 606 on gallbladder cancer was more pronounced among non-obese (body mass index < 23) (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.8-6.1; P interaction = 0.001). Among women taking oral contraceptives, the effect of SHBG Ex8 + 6 (rs6259) on gallbladder cancer (OR = 6.7, 95% CI = 2.2-20.5; P interaction = 0.001) and stones (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.9; P-interaction = 0.05) was statistically significant. Our findings suggest that common variants in hormone-related genes contribute to the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones, possibly by modulating hormone metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly aggressive cancer with female predominance. Interindividual differences in the effectiveness of the activation/detoxification of environmental carcinogens and endogenous estrogens may play a crucial role in cancer susceptibility. The present study included 410 patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBC) and 230 healthy subjects. This study examined association of CYP1A1-MspI, CYP1A1-Ile462Val, and CYP1B1-Val432Leu with GBC susceptibility. CYP1A1-MspI [CC] and CYP1A1-Ile462Val [iso/val] genotypes were found to be significantly associated with GBC (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03, respectively), as compared to healthy controls, while CYP1B1-Val432Leu was not associated with GBC. The CYP1A1 haplotype [C-val] showed a significant association with GBC (p = 0.006). On stratification based on gender, the CYP1A1-MspI [CC] genotype showed an increased risk of GBC in females (p = 0.018). In case-only analysis, tobacco users with CYP1A1-MspI [CT] genotypes were at a higher risk of GBC (p = 0.008). Subdividing the GBC patients on the basis of gallstone status, the CYP1A1 haplotype [C-val] imparted a higher risk in patients without stones when compared to controls (p = 0.001). The results remained significant even after applying Bonferroni correction. Multivariate analysis revealed an increased risk of CYP1A1 iso/val and val/val genotypes in GBC patients having BMI >25 (p = 0.021). The CYP1A1 polymorphisms may confer increased risk of GBC, probably due to impaired xenobiotic or hormone metabolism through a gallstone-independent pathway.Tumor Biology 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13277-014-1708-4 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor 1 (ER1) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) to identify new prognostic markers for this malignancy. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated ER1 and VEGF-A expression in 78 GBC and 78 cholelithiasis (CS) tissues. The results were correlated with clinicopathological features. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between ER1 and VEGF-A expression and patients' prognosis. Further Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also performed. ER1 and VEGF-A expression was significantly higher in GBC compared with CS (47/78 vs 28/78, P < 0.05; 51/78 vs 33/78, P < 0.05). ER1 expression was correlated with gender (P < 0.05) and VEGF-A expression was correlated with tumor differentiation in GBC patients (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, age and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage were factors associated with GBC prognosis (P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical difference between the expression of ER1 or VEGF-A and overall survival, the high expression of ER1 combined with VEGF-A predicted a poor prognosis for GBC patients (16.30 ± 1.87 vs 24.97 ± 2.09, log-rank P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for GBC patients (P < 0.05). Combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A is a potential prognostic marker for GBC patients. Clinical detection of ER1 and VEGF-A in surgically resected GBC tissues would provide an important reference for decision-making of postoperative treatment programs.
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ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon, with a high incidence in certain geographic locations, including Latin America, East and South Asia, and Eastern Europe. Molecular characterization of this disease has been limited, and targeted therapy options for advanced disease remain an open area of investigation. In the present study, surgical pathology obtained from resected gallbladder cancer cases (n = 72) was examined for the presence of targetable, somatic mutations. All cases were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Two approaches were used: (a) mass spectroscopy-based profiling for 159 point ("hot spot") mutations in 33 genes commonly involved in solid tumors and (b) next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform that examined the complete coding sequence of in 182 cancer-related genes. Fifty-seven cases were analyzed for hot spot mutations; and 15, for NGS. Fourteen hot spot mutations were identified in 9 cases. Of these, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with poor survival on multivariate analysis. Other targetable mutations included PIK3CA (n = 2) and ALK (n = 1). On NGS, 26 mutations were noted in 15 cases. TP53 and PI3 kinase pathway (STK11, RICTOR, TSC2) mutations were common. One case had FGF10 amplification, whereas another had FGF3-TACC gene fusion, not previously described in gallbladder cancer. In conclusion, somatic mutation profiling using archival FFPE samples from gallbladder cancer is feasible. NGS, in particular, may be a useful platform for identifying novel mutations for targeted therapy.Human pathology 11/2013; 45(4). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2013.11.001 · 2.81 Impact Factor