[Results of nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma of more than 4 cm in diameter].
ABSTRACT To date, radical nephrectomy (RN) remains the gold standard treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) larger than 4 cm. However, from the early 1990's, improvements in surgical techniques have lead to the development of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for small renal tumours of less than 4 cm in diameter. This surgical procedure avoids nephronic waste with an acceptable morbidity and similar oncological outcomes compared to radical surgery. Recent large published series did not show any difference between NSS and RN in terms of oncological safety. Specific and disease-free five-year survival rates (82% to 97.3% and 81% to 97.3%, respectively) have confirmed the safety of NSS. Regarding laparoscopic NSS, the technique is still under evaluation and only mid-term outcomes are available so far. However, these studies are still limited and longer follow-up is needed before any definitive statement can be made. Current guidelines recommend NSS only in case of RCC of less than 4 cm in diameter in elective indications. In daily practice however, surgical teams are pushing back the limit above the threshold of 4 cm. More and more surgeons are either considering anatomical location or technical expected difficulties rather than just the tumour size. NSS leads to higher risk of bleeding, especially in case of tumours larger than 4 cm. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to investigate thoroughly the vascularization of the tumour to avoid such complications with exhaustive and accurate preoperative imaging.