Migration and bioavailability of (137)Cs in forest soil of southern Germany.

Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity (Impact Factor: 3.67). 02/2009; 100(4):315-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.12.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To give a quantitative description of the radiocaesium soil-plant transfer for fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), physical and chemical properties of soils in spruce and mixed forest stands were investigated. Of special interest was the selective sorption of radiocaesium, which was determined by measuring the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP). Forest soil and plants were taken at 10 locations of the Altdorfer Wald (5 sites in spruce forest and 5 sites in mixed forest). It was found that the bioavailability of radiocaesium in spruce forest was on average seven times higher than in mixed forest. It was shown that important factors determining the bioavailability of radiocaesium in forest soil were its exchangeability and the radiocaesium interception potential (RIP) of the soil. Low potassium concentration in soil solution of forest soils favors radiocaesium soil-plant transfer. Ammonium in forest soils plays an even more important role than potassium as a mobilizer of radiocaesium. The availability factor - a function of RIP, exchangeability and cationic composition of soil solution - characterized reliably the soil-plant transfer in both spruce and mixed forest. For highly organic soils in coniferous forest, radiocaesium sorption at regular exchange sites should be taken into account when its bioavailability is considered.

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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the radiocesium (RCs) interception potential (RIP), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) content, and adsorption species in soils and minerals by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The RIP related to Cs(+) adsorption by frayed-edge site (FES) has often been used to measure the mobility and bioavailability of RCs in the environment. This study found that the presence of organic matter (OM) can reduce RIP to a certain extent. The adsorption amount (=Q(T)) in soil was obviously correlated to RIP at a small [Cs(+)] region, whereas a linear relationship between Q(T) and CEC was observed at a large [Cs(+)] region. Both the inner-sphere (IS) and outer-sphere (OS) complexes of Cs(+) were observed through EXAFS at a molecular scale. The linear correlation between log (RIP/CEC) and the ratio of the coordination number (CN) of IS (=CNIS) and OS (=CNOS) complexes noted as CNIS/(CNIS + CNOS) suggested that the ratio of CN is very sensitive to Cs(+) adsorption species with variable RIP and CEC. The adsorption species of Cs(+) in soil was mainly dependent on the clay mineral content of soil. RIP was affected not only by FES but also by other strong adsorption sites, such as the interlayers and cavities identified as the IS complex in EXAFS analysis. Findings indicated that the EXAFS approach is a powerful and efficient tool to explore the behavior of Cs(+) in a given environment.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 12/2014; 138:92–100. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistently high activity concentrations of radioactive Cs-137 (T 1/2 = 30.17 a) in various animals and fruits originating from Bavarian forest ecosystems suggest that the contamination of soils in these ecosystems is still critical even decades after the severe inputs following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Aware of the fact, that such inputs are a global threat that can re-emerge at any time, a new monitoring network was established in cooperation with the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health, to enhance the value of long-term radioprotection strategies in forests. Based on the investigation of 48 forest sites throughout the entire state territory, the project delivers a total of 889 gamma spectrometric records and demonstrates the current Cs-137 contamination situation of Bavarian forest soils, providing a valuable update on the residual contamination levels and thus a comprehensive inventory for any future radioprotection management. First results of this project are presented hereby. The total Cs-137 areal activity densities in Bavarian forest soils currently vary between 640 and 61,166 Bq m−², with the peak areal activity density of each profile being located in the uppermost, humus rich mineral A-horizon in 68 % of all cases. Moreover, the results detect a positive correlation of humus thickness and relative areal Cs-137 activity density in humus horizons (R² = 0.50), validating previous findings on that topic by means of a very comprehensive data set across 2.56 Mio ha forest stands by showing that humus bodies >7.5 cm still contain at least 50 % of the total areal topsoil activity density.
    European Journal of Forest Research 09/2012; 131(5). · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 06/2010; 101(10):854-863. · 3.57 Impact Factor


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May 23, 2014